Summary of CBD
Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts
What is CBD?
CBD (cannabidiol) is the second most abundant cannabinoid in cannabis, after THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). Isolated CBD is typically used medicinally, not recreationally, with the four most commonly targeted conditions being pain, anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders.
Is CBD legal?
Let's just say ... it's complicated. CBD products that are derived from hemp, with a low-to-zero percentage of THC (below 0.3%), are currently in a legal gray area in the US.
A quick bit of history: The Farm Act was passed in December of 2018, and it legalized hemp (the source of CBD). CBD advocates rejoiced – CBD supplements were already commonplace in 2018, but now in 2019 they're pretty much everwhere. Some estimates suggest up to 7% of adults have used CBD, and there were up to $2 billion in sales in 2018 (projected to rise dramatically in the next couple years).
In December of 2018 though, the FDA stated that CBD cannot be marketed as a supplement without FDA approval, but in April of 2019, the FDA was taking public comments to formulate a revised position. Currently, non-pharmaceutical CBD is technically only legal under very specific conditions, such as when the source hemp was produced in a manner consistent with the Farm Bill, and by a licensed grower. Complicating matters further: the DEA and individual states can have different legal perspectives on CBD. Clarification on CBD legality should come within the first half of 2019.
As far as 100% unquestionably legal CBD goes, the liquid CBD medication Epidiolex was recently FDA-approved in 2018. Note that it's not the first cannabis extract drug. Nabiximols (brand name Sativex) is a cannabis extract spray with a nearly 1:1 ratio of THC:CBD, and it was approved as a drug in the UK in 2010 (but has not been approved in the US). Due to the THC content, it has a different side effect profile than Epidiolex, such as dizziness and disorientation. However, due to the THC, it may have benefits for a wider variety of conditions than CBD alone (due to the "entourage effect"), such as for spasticity from multiple sclerosis.
What are CBD's potential benefits?
The main studied benefit to CBD is on two rare forms of epilepsy (Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndrome), but potential benefits stretch from common maladies (anxiety, chronic pain) to reduction in inflammation, even to potential benefits for cancer. Human randomized trials are quite scarce, though.
Before protesting, "Hey, why doesn't your Scientific Research section cover XYZ mouse study showing CBD benefits?", take note that mice are not human. In fact, the same exact dose of CBD in a mouse versus a human will be more bioavailable in the mouse, leading to larger effects. That's besides the bevy of other reasons that animal studies often don't translate to humans, such as different metabolic pathways in animals, lab conditions differing from free-living human conditions, etc.
Is CBD dangerous?
In small amounts, probably not for most people. In large amounts over time ... well, read on to get a gist of the risks.
The most notable (acute) drawbacks of cannabis consumption don't apply to isolated CBD: a possible mind-altered state involving one or more of impaired memory, altered judgment, and impaired coordination. Side effects of CBD are typically relatively minor, including fatigue, decreased appetite, and diarrhea.
Yet CBD is not without potential detriment. The long-term use of isolated CBD isn't well researched in humans, so potential harms may be possible. For example, CBD and cannabis in general has been touted as a potential cancer treatment, yet certain cancer types could theoretically worsen from CBD-induced receptor activation (in this study, colon cancer). CBD studies are typically very short term, and side effects are captured as part of studies exploring potential benefits. It would take months- or years-long studies to assess long-term risk of chronic ingestion on specific body systems.
Despite this, CBD appears to be much safer than many other treatments aimed at chronic pain and anxiety, as well as drugs used for recreational use. In fact, the World Health Organization concluded in a review: "to date, there is no evidence of recreational use of CBD or any public health-related problems associated with the use of pure CBD".
How exactly does CBD work?
The myriad ways in which it works are not fully understood, but do not appear to center on the CB1 and CB2 receptors that THC acts on. Those receptors are part of the relatively newly-discovered endocannabinoid system, first described in 1992, and increasingly found to be important to human health and well-being through maintaining homeostasis (balance) in various aspects of physiology. CBD actually opposes the action of THC at the CB1 receptor (and certain other receptors as well), which can help counter THC's (potential) worsening of cognition, memory, psychosis, and other effects. Most notably, you won't get "high" (at least in the conventional sense of the word) from CBD, due to its differential impact on CB1 compared to THC.
Anywho, back to CBD's main effects. It appears to impact a variety of other receptors in the body, including an important receptor involved in pain and stress response, called TRPV1. Other receptors that CBD impacts include GPR55, 5HTI-alpha, and adenosine A2A, which variously can help with inflammation, pain, anxiety, and even potentially cancer.
There's a big catch though! CBD often seems to work better with THC (basically, in the typically consumed or inhaled form of medical cannabis, rather than as isolated CBD). This is often referred to as the "entourage effect" – that a single ingredient might, maybe do a little something, but you need the whole crew of compounds in the plant to have full efficacy. The problem here is that the whole crew can make you high, which is not typically desired in continuously-taken medications, and may even increase the risk of psychosis with longer term use.
Tired of misinformation? Get unbiased info on supplements.
At Examine.com, our incentives line up with yours — getting unbiased information. It’s why we don’t sell any advertising or supplements.
If you’re tired of wasting time and money on supplements that don’t work, our free Supplement Mini-Course will teach you about what works, what's a waste, and what to look out for when buying supplements.
Join the over 200,000 people who have gone through this course (saving themselves time, money, and stress).
Things To Know & Note
The vast majority of CBD extracts are not regulated, so different batches may contain more or less CBD than the labels claim. Always start with a low dose.
How to Take CBD
Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details
CBD dosage recommendations? That opens up a huge can of worms.
CBD products, save for the pharmaceutical Epidiolex, are not regulated. So batches often vary in potency. Not only that, but some products have pretty much only CBD in them, and others have various other cannabinoids (you'll see "whole plant extract" and "single compound extracts" on shelves). Yet others have more than the allowed percentage of THC included. High-fat and high-calorie meals lead to much higher CBD concentrations, which adds another wrinkle.
Oh, and yet another wrinkle: CBD is vastly understudied at the moment, so different doses are rarely compared against each other and against a placebo. Long-term safety is essentially unstudied, and even several month long trials are rare.
So as far as recommendations go ... we're not giving any at the moment (we shall assess more evidence, and think it through in our typical thorough fashion), but always talk to your doctor before taking CBD, and start with as low of a dose as you can. Study dosages vary widely by clinical indication, from less than 5 mg/d to well over 100 mg/d. To repeat: talk to your doctor!
Get access to the latest nutrition research
By becoming an Examine Plus member, you'll have access to all of the latest nutrition research on over 300 supplements across over 500 different health goals, outcomes, conditions, and more.
Human Effect Matrix
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects cbd has on your body, and how strong these effects are.
|Grade||Level of Evidence [show legend]|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
|Strong||Very High See all 3 studies|
|Notable||Very High See all 5 studies|
|Minor||Very High See all 3 studies|
|Minor||Moderate See 2 studies|
|Minor||- See study|
|-||- See study|
Get unbiased information on what works
At Examine.com, we pride ourselves on basing all our recommendations on evidence. It’s why we don’t sell any advertising or supplements — so that you know that our analysis is unbiased.
If you’re tired of wasting time and money on supplements that don’t work, our 17 Supplement Guides will help you figure out precisely what to take — and what to skip — based on your health goals and the latest scientific evidence.
Join over 50,000 people who rely on Examine.com's unbiased and science-based analysis.
I want unbiased recommendations »
Research Breakdown on CBD
Click on any below to expand the corresponding section. Click on to collapse it.
CBD popularity exploded in the 2000s, especially after parents started experimenting with CBD for their children, as a treatment option for drug-resistant seizures in the rare and severe epilepsy condition called Dravet Syndrome.
The cannabinoids in cannabis have been studied since the 1940s,, with the structures of THC and CBD discovered in the 1960s. Research really heated up in the 1990s, as cannabinoid receptors in the body were found,, and were later found to also be activated by endogenous compounds (which we make in our own bodies) in 1992.
CBD products that maintain a low-to-zero percentage of THC (below 0.3%) are currently in legal gray area in the US, with legality bolstered after the Farm Act was passed in December of 2018, yet the FDA still technically requiring marketed supplements to be approved by the FDA first. The FDA sent warning letters in April of 2019 to three companies who they deemed to be making egregious health claims, including:
“CBD successfully stopped cancer cells in multiple different cervical cancer varieties.”
“CBD also decreased human glioma cell growth and invasion, thus suggesting a possible role of CBD as an antitumor agent.”
“For Alzheimer’s patients, CBD is one treatment option that is slowing the progression of that disease.”
“Fibromyalgia is conceived as a central sensitization state with secondary hyperalgesia. CBD has demonstrated the ability to block spinal, peripheral and gastrointestinal mechanisms responsible for the pain associated with migraines, fibromyalgia, IBS and other related disorders.”
“Cannabidiol May be Effective for Treating Substance Use Disorders.”
“CBD reduced the rewarding effects of morphine and reduced drug seeking of heroin.”
“CBD may be used to avoid or reduce withdrawal symptoms.”
Presumably, this is because evidence is scant right now for most conditions outside of severe epilepsy, and since these statements don't include that disclaimer, patients could presume that the evidence level is stronger than it actually is. Thus the FDA states "we won’t tolerate this kind of deceptive marketing to vulnerable patients". The interaction between FDA regulation of food, drugs, and supplements (all of which may apply to cannabis), along with different regulations around cannabis in different states, makes legal issues regarding CBD and other cannabinoid products complex.
CBD is typically extracted from the hemp plant. Here's a quick overview of terms: Cannabis is a plant genus, that comes in two main botanical types — Cannabis indica, and Cannabis sativa. Marijuana (which contains both CBD and THC) can be of either type, while hemp is only of the sativa type.
Note that these both belong to the same genus and species, and are rather distinguished by their THC level. Hemp contains a maximum of 0.3% THC content, while marijuana typically ranges between 5-20% THC. Marijuana is often grown for recreational use, or mixed recreational/medicinal use, whereas hemp is grown for a wider variety of uses (hemp clothing, hemp oil, hemp fiber, isolated CBD, and dozens more).
CBD and THC are not the only cannabinoids found on the market. For example, CBG (cannabigerol) is found in lesser amounts in cannabis, but has been studied for inflammatory disease in an animal model.
Because the endocannabinoid system impacts so many facets of basic life (e.g. appetite, immune function, reproduction, and pain management), there's a bevy of possibilities for CBD (and other cannabinoids) impacting health. CBD may prevent the CB1 and CB2 receptor from being overly activated, reducing the effects of stress mediated by those receptors. Additional roles include anti-oxidation - CBD as well as THC have both been shown to act as neuroprotective antioxidants in rats.
While THC acts mainly on the CB1 and CB2 receptors, CBD acts on other receptors including the TRPV1 calcium channel, activating and rapidly desensitizing it, ultimately resulting in less potential for hyperexcitation.
In order to find adverse events and side effects, which may be rare, you need a relatively big sample size. So the main studies to assess these were the larger trials in young patients with severe seizure disorders, namely Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome.
The effects that happened more frequently with CBD than with placebo include: sleepiness, diarrhea, fatigue, vomiting, fever, and lethary. Some patients also had increased levels of liver aminotransferase.
A comprehensive review found that doses of up to 1,500 mg/d seem to be fairly well tolerated, although it's not at all safe to presume that dose will be safe for a given individual (due to the relative lack of long-term safety information, and variety of conditions/drugs/etc that could theoretically interact with CBD).
CBD has also has promise as a method of reducing side effects when other medications are taken, such as in a trial of CBD for patients with schizophrenia taking amisulpride.
Contaminants from cannabis plants grown, harvested, and packaged with less-controlled practices could theoretically also show up in CBD products, including pesticides, metal particles, synthetic cannabinoids, heavy metals, molds and bacteria, and aflatoxins. Residual solvents from the production process can also show up in cannabis extracts, namely hexane, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, toluene, benzene, xylene and acetone. This research is all on general cannabis extracts though; research into contaminants specifically in isolated CBD products is still to be done.
CBD taken by an oral route (specifically the liquid medication Epidiolex) takes between 2.5 and 5 hours to reach maximal concentration in the blood. The half life is between 56-61 hours. In both humans and rats, being in a fed state appears to increase plasma levels of CBD.
CBD pharmacokinetics can vary fairly widely among different people, which may be compounded by batch-to-batch variation and labeling inaccuracies in certain CBD products.
Right now, there's just a hint of promise for CBD improving skin conditions, none based on randomized trial research. For example, CBD was found in a preclinical in vitro study to display antiinflammatory, antiproliferative, and lipostatic effects that suggest it may potentially have some efficacy in treatments of skin conditions such as acne vulgaris.
A case study reported that a daily dose of 2x300 mg of CBD was associated with improvement of dysphagia from ALS. While eighteen months after onset, dysphagia progress and speech was almost competely lose, limb weakness, fasciculation, and atrophy worsened relatively less. The authors theorize that progression of some but not all symptoms of motor neuron disease may be able to be slowed using CBD.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) likely involves alterations in certain neurological chemical pathways, such as with glutamate and GABA. It is with this idea that a study tested whether CBD altered these pathways in a way that might help with autism, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The researchers found that CBD was not effective in this manner. However, a retrospective case series showed improved behavior in 61% of a sample of children with ASD. There was no control group, however.
In an exploratory trial, 2000 mg/d of CBD reduced psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia, and patients on CBD were more likely to be rated as improved by the treating clinician.. A randomized trial of CBD found that both it and amisulpride improved symptoms, but CBD had a better side-effect profile.
However, in a randomized trial of 600 mg/d of CBD, no improvements in symptoms were noted. A non-controlled study found no benefit of CBD in doses increasing from 40 mg/d up to 1280 mg/d over 35 days in patients with treatment-resistent schizophrenia.
In six randomized trials with over 500 patients having severe seizures (typically young children), CBD significantly improves seizure symptoms. Notably, the percentage of patients who had an over 50% reduction in seizeures went down, as did the number who stopped having seizures altogether. While randomized studies typically looked at Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome patients, extended nonrandomized trials ("compassionate use" studies) also showed efficacy in CDKL5 deficiency disorder as well as Aicardi, Doose, and Dup15q syndromes. A case series of three patients also suggested that CBD can help with brain-tumor related epilepsy.
Longer term followups confirm that CBD continues to be effective and relatively safe in these patients, although initially common side effects such as reduced appetite and diarrhea persisted in one study. CBD appears to have a similarly-sized effect on severe pediatric epilepsy as do other antiepileptic drugs. A small cohort study suggests that caregivers also felt that the overall health of their children with severe epilepsy was improved.
The reason that CBD can help with seizures has to do with endocannabinoid signaling pathways. These are altered in seizure disorder, and THC and CBD act in different ways to potentially help. THC likely helps through activating the CB1 receptor, while CBD's mechanisms are less well understood and may include a variety of other receptors, such as GPR55 and TRPV1.
While the potential for CBD helping certain types of chronic pain is high, the evidence base is surprisingly tiny, with only one randomized trial and two nonrandomized trials.
One randomized looked at pain and spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, and other conditions with these symptoms. Although several patients didn't complete the trial, pain control improved in the CBD group (while spasm and other symptoms did not).
Two nondrandomized, uncontrolled trials looked at CBD for pain relief. One looked at pain in young girls with chronic pain from the HPV vaccine. It found reduced body pain and better functioning from CBD. A very very small study looked at pain in kidney transplant patients, and found that two out of seven patients had total relief of pain, while four had some relief.
Whereas a single dose of THC appears to increase anxiety relative to placebo, a single dose of CBD was found to be similar to placebo. Long term randomized trials are lacking, but short term randomized trials and longer-term case series studies have explored CBD's potential beneficial impacts on anxiety.
In a case series of 72 psychiatric outpatients, CBD (with most patients taking 25 mg/d) improved anxiety scores rapidly in around 80% of patients, with the effect typically sustaining over the course of three months.
Three trials have looked at the effects of CBD on anxiety experimentally induced by public speaking (shudder!). An early nonrandomized trial in 1993 showed that 300 mg of CBD helped anxiety after the public speaking test, but not before it. A randomized 2017 study by the same author also showed anxiety reduction from the same 300 mg dose, after the speaking test, with 100 mg and 900 mg showing no effect. A different group studied 600 mg of CBD, and found significant anxiety reduction during the public speaking test.
Non-controlled trials provide weaker evidence, but extend the evidence to other populations. One retrospective case series showed that nearly 80% of patients that CBD was used for at a psychiatric clinic for anxiety had improved anxiety, with most of them maintaining benefits past the first month.
A case study suggested that CBD dosed for 10 days reduced symptoms of cannabis withdrawal in a heavy user, such as anxiety, loss of appetite, and irritability.
Preliminary evidence suggested that CBD reduced cigarette smoking (despite not impacting craving for cigarettes), and reduced the pleasantness of cigarette-related cues after a night of abstinence.
Alas, in cigarette smokers aiming for abstinence, CBD did not improve verbal or spatial working memory, or impulsivity.
A small pilot study in individuals addicted to opioids showed that CBD in doses of 400 or 800 mg reduced craving after subjects were abstinent from opioids for seven days (after a video session to induce craving). However, most evidence for potential CBD benefits on opioid withdrawal are preclinical and based on very small studies.
A case series of 72 psychiatric outpatients found that CBD (with most patients taking 25 mg/d) did not improve sleep scores over the course of three months.
On the flip side, double-blinded crossover study found that CBD did not disrupt the sleep-wake cycle of patients taking a relatively high dose intended to clinically reduce anxiety (300 mg).
Human CBD trials are lacking when it comes to cancer treatment.
One case study reported on a lung cancer patient who had a "striking response" with apparent tumour reduction after self-administering CBD. Of course, this is a case report, and it's anyone's guess if CBD was the causative element. But it is food for thought, nonetheless.
Speaking of case reports, another suggested that CBD may have improved chemoradiation in two cases of high-grade gliomas. A retrospective case series reported that 92% of the 119 cancer cases looked at had a reduction in circulating tumor cells and sometimes a reduction in tumor size, when pharmaceutical-grade CBD was taken. Again, this is low-level evidence, but something to chew on.
A trial of 10 mg of CBD, twice a day, found no beneficial effects. The authors hypothesize that this may have been influenced by the low dose or small number of patients in the study, or by the lack of other synergistic cannabinoids (i.e. the entourage effect).
CBD appears to interact with commonly used antiepleptic drugs, changing their serum levels significantly. These include clobazam, rufinamide, topiramate, zonisamide, and eslicarbazepine.
CBD also can inhibit an enzyme called CYP2D6, which is targeted by common drugs including omeprazole and risperidone. It may also inhibit the enzyme CYP2C9, which would reduce the metabolization of warfarin and diclofenac. It's not known whether in vitro inhibitions will translate to actual inhibitions in living humans, and further study on this is needed. In a study of 6x100 mg/d of CBD, it increased the bioavailability and elimination half-life of hexobarbital.
On the flip side, it's also possible for other drugs to impact the metabolization of CBD. For example, the antibiotic rifampicin reduces peak CBD concentrations in the blood due to inducing the enzyme CYP3A4, while the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole nearly doubles peak CBD concentration.
- Bonn-Miller MO, et al. Labeling Accuracy of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online. JAMA. (2017)
- Freedman DA, Patel AD. Inadequate Regulation Contributes to Mislabeled Online Cannabidiol Products. Pediatr Neurol Briefs. (2018)
- Zgair A, et al. Dietary fats and pharmaceutical lipid excipients increase systemic exposure to orally administered cannabis and cannabis-based medicines. Am J Transl Res. (2016)
- Wong SS, Wilens TE. Medical Cannabinoids in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics. (2017)
- Andre CM, Hausman JF, Guerriero G. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules. Front Plant Sci. (2016)
- Corroon J, Phillips JA. A Cross-Sectional Study of Cannabidiol Users. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. (2018)
- Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on signing of the Agriculture Improvement Act and the agency’s regulation of products containing cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds.
- Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on new steps to advance agency’s continued evaluation of potential regulatory pathways for cannabis-containing and cannabis-derived products.
- Russo M, et al. Should we care about sativex-induced neurobehavioral effects? A 6-month follow-up study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. (2016)
- Sastre-Garriga J, et al. THC and CBD oromucosal spray (Sativex®) in the management of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Expert Rev Neurother. (2011)
- Chen JW, Borgelt LM, Blackmer AB. Epidiolex (Cannabidiol): A New Hope for Patients With Dravet or Lennox-Gastaut Syndromes. Ann Pharmacother. (2019)
- de Mello Schier AR, et al. Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. (2014)
- Hammell DC, et al. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. Eur J Pain. (2016)
- Philpott HT, OʼBrien M, McDougall JJ. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain. (2017)
- Massi P, et al. Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug. Br J Clin Pharmacol. (2013)
- Deiana S, et al. Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behaviour. Psychopharmacology (Berl). (2012)
- Bracken MB. Why animal studies are often poor predictors of human reactions to exposure. J R Soc Med. (2009)
- Iffland K, Grotenhermen F. An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. (2017)
- Fischer B, et al. Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines: A Comprehensive Update of Evidence and Recommendations. Am J Public Health. (2017)
- Śledziński P, et al. The current state and future perspectives of cannabinoids in cancer biology. Cancer Med. (2018)
- Martínez-Martínez E, et al. CB2 cannabinoid receptor activation promotes colon cancer progression via AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway. Oncotarget. (2016)
- WHO - CANNABIDIOL Critical Review Report,.
- Devane WA, et al. Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science. (1992)
- Mouslech Z, Valla V. Endocannabinoid system: An overview of its potential in current medical practice. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. (2009)
- Basavarajappa BS, Nixon RA, Arancio O. Endocannabinoid system: emerging role from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Mini Rev Med Chem. (2009)
- Pacher P, Bátkai S, Kunos G. The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacol Rev. (2006)
- Kaur R, Ambwani SR, Singh S. Endocannabinoid System: A Multi-Facet Therapeutic Target. Curr Clin Pharmacol. (2016)
- Thomas A, et al. Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in vitro. Br J Pharmacol. (2007)
- Aso E, et al. Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Heteromers in the Hippocampus: Cannabidiol Blunts Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Cognitive Impairment. Mol Neurobiol. (2019)
- McPartland JM, et al. Are cannabidiol and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabivarin negative modulators of the endocannabinoid system? A systematic review. Br J Pharmacol. (2015)
- Jara-Oseguera A, Simon SA, Rosenbaum T. TRPV1: on the road to pain relief. Curr Mol Pharmacol. (2008)
- Ho KW, Ward NJ, Calkins DJ. TRPV1: a stress response protein in the central nervous system. Am J Neurodegener Dis. (2012)
- Terzian AL, et al. Modulation of anxiety-like behaviour by Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 (TRPV1) channels located in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. (2009)
- Ryberg E, et al. The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor. Br J Pharmacol. (2007)
- Mecha M, et al. Cannabidiol provides long-lasting protection against the deleterious effects of inflammation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: a role for A2A receptors. Neurobiol Dis. (2013)
- Resstel LB, et al. 5-HT1A receptors are involved in the cannabidiol-induced attenuation of behavioural and cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats. Br J Pharmacol. (2009)
- Linge R, et al. Cannabidiol induces rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and enhances cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission: role of 5-HT1A receptors. Neuropharmacology. (2016)
- Russo EB. The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No "Strain," No Gain. Front Plant Sci. (2019)
- Murray RM, et al. Traditional marijuana, high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis. World Psychiatry. (2016)
- Devinsky O, Cross JH, Wright S. Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome. N Engl J Med. (2017)
- LOEWE S. Studies on the pharmacology and acute toxicity of compounds with marihuana activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. (1946)
- Howlett AC, et al. International Union of Pharmacology. XXVII. Classification of cannabinoid receptors. Pharmacol Rev. (2002)
- Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on signing of the Agriculture Improvement Act and the agency’s regulation of products containing cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds.
- Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on new steps to advance agency’s continued evaluation of potential regulatory pathways for cannabis-containing and cannabis-derived products.
- O'Connor SM, Lietzan E. The Surprising Reach of FDA Regulation of Cannabis, Even After Descheduling. Am Univ Law Rev. (2019)
- Hilderbrand RL. Hemp & Cannabidiol: What is a Medicine?. Mo Med. (2018)
- Borrelli F, et al. Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Biochem Pharmacol. (2013)
- Battista N, et al. The endocannabinoid system: an overview. Front Behav Neurosci. (2012)
- Laprairie RB, et al. Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Br J Pharmacol. (2015)
- Hampson AJ, et al. Cannabidiol and (-)Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (1998)
- Iannotti FA, et al. Nonpsychotropic plant cannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate and desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in vitro: potential for the treatment of neuronal hyperexcitability. ACS Chem Neurosci. (2014)
- Devinsky O, et al. Effect of Cannabidiol on Drop Seizures in the Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome. N Engl J Med. (2018)
- Manini AF, et al. Safety and pharmacokinetics of oral cannabidiol when administered concomitantly with intravenous fentanyl in humans. J Addict Med. (2015)
- Arndt DL, de Wit H. Cannabidiol Does Not Dampen Responses to Emotional Stimuli in Healthy Adults. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. (2017)
- Bergamaschi MM, et al. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Curr Drug Saf. (2011)
- Schuel H, et al. Cannabinoids inhibit fertilization in sea urchins by reducing the fertilizing capacity of sperm. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. (1991)
- Stout SM, Cimino NM. Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: a systematic review. Drug Metab Rev. (2014)
- Leweke FM, et al. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry. (2012)
- Russo EB. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues. Front Pharmacol. (2016)
- Busse FP, et al. Lead poisoning due to adulterated marijuana in leipzig. Dtsch Arztebl Int. (2008)
- Pavlovic R, et al. Quality Traits of "Cannabidiol Oils": Cannabinoids Content, Terpene Fingerprint and Oxidation Stability of European Commercially Available Preparations. Molecules. (2018)
- Epidiolex(Cannabidiol) prescribing information. Carlsbad,CA: Greenwich Biosciences, Inc.; 2018..
- Winter H, et al. Effect of a high-calorie, high-fat meal on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of PA-824 in healthy adult subjects. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. (2013)
- Huestis MA. Human cannabinoid pharmacokinetics. Chem Biodivers. (2007)
- Eagleston LRM, et al. Cannabinoids in dermatology: a scoping review. Dermatol Online J. (2018)
- Oláh A, et al. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. J Clin Invest. (2014)
- Co-medication with Cannabidiol May Slow Down the Progression of Motor Neuron Disease: A Case Report; 2017..
- Pretzsch CM, et al. Effects of cannabidiol on brain excitation and inhibition systems; a randomised placebo-controlled single dose trial during magnetic resonance spectroscopy in adults with and without autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. (2019)
- Aran A, et al. Brief Report: Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Severe Behavioral Problems-A Retrospective Feasibility Study. J Autism Dev Disord. (2019)
- Chagas MH, et al. Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease: an exploratory double-blind trial. J Psychopharmacol. (2014)
- Peres FF, et al. Cannabidiol as a Promising Strategy to Treat and Prevent Movement Disorders?. Front Pharmacol. (2018)
- McGuire P, et al. Cannabidiol (CBD) as an Adjunctive Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Psychiatry. (2018)
- Boggs DL, et al. The effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on cognition and symptoms in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia a randomized placebo controlled trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl). (2018)
- Zuardi AW, et al. Cannabidiol monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. J Psychopharmacol. (2006)
- Stockings E, et al. Evidence for cannabis and cannabinoids for epilepsy: a systematic review of controlled and observational evidence. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. (2018)
- Devinsky O, et al. Open-label use of highly purified CBD (Epidiolex®) in patients with CDKL5 deficiency disorder and Aicardi, Dup15q, and Doose syndromes. Epilepsy Behav. (2018)
- Warren PP, et al. The use of cannabidiol for seizure management in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy. Neurocase. (2017)
- Thiele E, et al. Cannabidiol in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Interim analysis of an open-label extension study. Epilepsia. (2019)
- Szaflarski JP, et al. Cannabidiol improves frequency and severity of seizures and reduces adverse events in an open-label add-on prospective study. Epilepsy Behav. (2018)
- Szaflarski JP, et al. Long-term safety and treatment effects of cannabidiol in children and adults with treatment-resistant epilepsies: Expanded access program results. Epilepsia. (2018)
- Sands TT, et al. Long-Term Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of Cannabidiol in Children with Refractory Epilepsy: Results from an Expanded Access Program in the US. CNS Drugs. (2019)
- Ali S, Scheffer IE, Sadleir LG. Efficacy of cannabinoids in paediatric epilepsy. Dev Med Child Neurol. (2019)
- Chen KA, et al. Cannabidiol for treating drug-resistant epilepsy in children: the New South Wales experience. Med J Aust. (2018)
- Reddy DS, Golub VM. The Pharmacological Basis of Cannabis Therapy for Epilepsy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. (2016)
- Rosenberg EC, Patra PH, Whalley BJ. Therapeutic effects of cannabinoids in animal models of seizures, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, and epilepsy-related neuroprotection. Epilepsy Behav. (2017)
- Bisogno T, et al. Molecular targets for cannabidiol and its synthetic analogues: effect on vanilloid VR1 receptors and on the cellular uptake and enzymatic hydrolysis of anandamide. Br J Pharmacol. (2001)
- Bialer M, et al. Progress report on new antiepileptic drugs: A summary of the Thirteenth Eilat Conference on New Antiepileptic Drugs and Devices (EILAT XIII). Epilepsia. (2017)
- Wade DT, et al. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clin Rehabil. (2003)
- Palmieri B, Laurino C, Vadalà M. Short-Term Efficacy of CBD-Enriched Hemp Oil in Girls with Dysautonomic Syndrome after Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Isr Med Assoc J. (2017)
- Cuñetti L, et al. Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay. Transplant Proc. (2018)
- Martin-Santos R, et al. Acute effects of a single, oral dose of d9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) administration in healthy volunteers. Curr Pharm Des. (2012)
- Shannon S, et al. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J. (2019)
- Zuardi AW, et al. Effects of ipsapirone and cannabidiol on human experimental anxiety. J Psychopharmacol. (1993)
- Zuardi AW, et al. Inverted U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve of the Anxiolytic Effect of Cannabidiol during Public Speaking in Real Life. Front Pharmacol. (2017)
- Bergamaschi MM, et al. Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. (2011)
- Crippa JA, et al. Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome: a case report. J Clin Pharm Ther. (2013)
- Morgan CJ, et al. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings. Addict Behav. (2013)
- Hindocha C, et al. Cannabidiol reverses attentional bias to cigarette cues in a human experimental model of tobacco withdrawal. Addiction. (2018)
- Hindocha C, et al. The effects of cannabidiol on impulsivity and memory during abstinence in cigarette dependent smokers. Sci Rep. (2018)
- Ren Y, et al. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances. J Neurosci. (2009)
- Hurd YL, et al. Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage. Neurotherapeutics. (2015)
- Elms L, et al. Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series. J Altern Complement Med. (2019)
- Linares IMP, et al. No Acute Effects of Cannabidiol on the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study. Front Pharmacol. (2018)
- Sulé-Suso J, et al. Striking lung cancer response to self-administration of cannabidiol: A case report and literature review. SAGE Open Med Case Rep. (2019)
- Dall'Stella PB, et al. Case Report: Clinical Outcome and Image Response of Two Patients With Secondary High-Grade Glioma Treated With Chemoradiation, PCV, and Cannabidiol. Front Oncol. (2019)
- Kenyon J, Liu W, Dalgleish A. Report of Objective Clinical Responses of Cancer Patients to Pharmaceutical-grade Synthetic Cannabidiol. Anticancer Res. (2018)
- Naftali T, et al. Low-Dose Cannabidiol Is Safe but Not Effective in the Treatment for Crohn's Disease, a Randomized Controlled Trial. Dig Dis Sci. (2017)
- Irving PM, et al. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Pilot Study of Cannabidiol-rich Botanical Extract in the Symptomatic Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. (2018)
- Gaston TE, et al. Interactions between cannabidiol and commonly used antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia. (2017)
- Ujváry I, Hanuš L. Human Metabolites of Cannabidiol: A Review on Their Formation, Biological Activity, and Relevance in Therapy. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. (2016)
- Welty TE, Luebke A, Gidal BE. Cannabidiol: promise and pitfalls. Epilepsy Curr. (2014)
- Brzozowska N, et al. ABC transporters P-gp and Bcrp do not limit the brain uptake of the novel antipsychotic and anticonvulsant drug cannabidiol in mice. PeerJ. (2016)
- Stott C, et al. A Phase I, open-label, randomized, crossover study in three parallel groups to evaluate the effect of Rifampicin, Ketoconazole, and Omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in healthy volunteers. Springerplus. (2013)
- Devinsky O, et al. Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome. N Engl J Med. (2017)
- Hess EJ, et al. Cannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex. Epilepsia. (2016)
- Devinsky O, et al. Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial. Lancet Neurol. (2016)
- Zuardi AW, et al. Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl). (1982)
- Linares IM, et al. Cannabidiol presents an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve in a simulated public speaking test. Braz J Psychiatry. (2019)
- Hundal H, et al. The effects of cannabidiol on persecutory ideation and anxiety in a high trait paranoid group. J Psychopharmacol. (2018)