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Magnesium, B12, and D3 for COVID-19


Hyperinflammation may affect COVID-19 severity and progression. Vitamin D regulates inflammatory and immune responses,[1] and preliminary research indicates it may improve COVID-19 outcomes,[2] but overall, there’s still a lack of research on the effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation on COVID-19 severity.

The study

This was a study of 43 COVID-19 patients admitted to Singapore General Hospital between January 15 and April 15, 2020. Of those 43 patients, 17 received 150 mg of magnesium, 500 μg of B12, and 25 μg (1,000 IU) of D3 daily until they recovered or their symptoms deteriorated or 14 days had passed. The other 26 patients formed the control group. Investigators monitored the 43 patients for 30 days from the onset of symptoms or until hospital discharge. The primary outcome was the number of patients who had to receive supplemental oxygen or ICU support.

The results

The median duration of the protocol was five days. Fewer patients in the treatment group (3/17) required supplemental oxygen or ICU support than in the control group (16/26).


Patients in the control group were older and tended to have more comorbidities than those in the treatment group.

Magnesium oxide, the form of magnesium used in this study, has poor bioavailability (rats absorbed only 15% in one study;[3] humans, only 4% in another[4]) and is especially liable to cause intestinal discomfort and diarrhea.[4][5][6]

There are 8 more summaries in the Immunity & Infectious Disease category for November 2020 including ...

  • How long can COVID-19 remain on various common surfaces?
  • An overview of how comorbidities are associated with COVID-19 prognosis
  • Is COVID-19 keeping medical professionals up at night?

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