CYP1A2 Inducers

    CYP1A2 inducers include, but are not limited to, carbamazepine, cruciferous vegetables, omeprazole, nelfinavir, phenobarbital, phenytoin, rifampin, ritonavir, and tobacco. See glossary page for more information.


    CYP1A2 inducers are compounds that increase the activity of the CYP1A2 enzyme, which can increase drug metabolism, potentially impacting the effects of drug therapy.

    CYP1A2 is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme found mostly in the liver that is involved in the metabolism of any medications that are CYP1A2 substrates; it is perhaps most well-known for its involvement in the metabolism of caffeine.[1] CYP1A2 inducers can increase the body’s metabolism of these substances. CYP1A2 may also play a role in the bioactivation of some carcinogens, like heterocyclic and aromatic amines.[2]

    The table below outlines some of the most common or clinically relevant CYP1A2 inducers.[3][1][4] Importantly, this list is not exhaustive.

    CYP1A2 Inducers
    Cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, Brussels sprouts)


    1. ^Zanger UM, Schwab MCytochrome P450 enzymes in drug metabolism: regulation of gene expression, enzyme activities, and impact of genetic variation.Pharmacol Ther.(2013-Apr)
    2. ^Zhao M, Ma J, Li M, Zhang Y, Jiang B, Zhao X, Huai C, Shen L, Zhang N, He L, Qin SCytochrome P450 Enzymes and Drug Metabolism in Humans.Int J Mol Sci.(2021-Nov-26)
    3. ^Song Y, Li C, Liu G, Liu R, Chen Y, Li W, Cao Z, Zhao B, Lu C, Liu YDrug-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Have Multifarious Influences on Treatment Outcomes.Clin Pharmacokinet.(2021-May)
    4. ^Hakkola J, Hukkanen J, Turpeinen M, Pelkonen OInhibition and induction of CYP enzymes in humans: an update.Arch Toxicol.(2020-Nov)