All Essential Benefits/Effects/Facts & Information
Pedalium Murex is a fruit-bearing herb that has its history intertwined with Tribulus Terrestris due to the visual similarities of the two fruits and their traditional interchanging in Goshukra formulas. Pedalium fruits are much less studied than Tribulus fruits currently.
Preliminary evidence suggests that Pedalium could increase testosterone and act as an aphrodisiac, although there are no human studies currently. The exact bioactives in Pedalium are equally unknown, and all that can be said is that many of the bioactivities of Pedalium are somewhat similar to Tribulus.
There is currently insufficient toxicity information on Pedalium Murex, although three rat studies suggest that there is not a low LD50 to be concerned with (in regards to overt toxicity, no in-depth organ histologies or blood panels have yet been conducted).
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Pedalium Murex (family Pedaliaceae) sometimes also known as Dakhani Gokhru and is traditionally used for urogenital health in Ayurveda, where 250 grams of the berries (fresh weight) are mixed with 100 grams of a leaf mixture (Rose Petals, Punarnava, and Saunf; Rosa qallica, Boerhaavia diffusa, and Foeniculam vulgare respectively) and consumed. It has also been used as an aphrodisiac (and as such has the designation of Vajikaran Rasayana), for antipyretic and antiulcer purposes, and used for intestinal health purposes in veterinary medicine.
The fruits of both Tribulus Terrestris and Pedalium Murex are commonly referred to as Gokhru (or alternatively, Gokshura), with the former having the prefix of Chota and the latter Dakhani or Bada. The fruits are visually similar and have been used interchangeably in traditional medicine.
Pedalin and Pedalitin
Diosgenin (19.86% ethanolic extract, although possibly 0.06% of the fruit by weight)
Tetratriacontanyl Octacosanoate and Triacotanyl Dotriacontanoate
The fruits appear to have a 3.5-5% alkaloid content (dry weight), and most anti-oxidant components are concentrated in either ethanolic or ethyl acetate fractions.
A study in male rats given 50-150mg/kg of the ethanolic extracts of the berries for 28 days noted dose and time dependent increases of mount frequency (125% increase with 150mg/kg at 28 days) and decreases in mount latency (maximal 40% reduction at peak) with similar aphrodisiac trends in intromission frequency/latency and ejaculation/post ejaculatory interval latency. When compared to the active control of Viagra at 5mg/kg, the highest dose appeared to have comparable effects; the effects of Pedalium Murex appeared to attenuate but still outperform control 15 days after supplement cessation.
One other study using a Petroleum ether extract in rats made infertile via alcohol exposure (thought to be secondary to testicular damage) noted improvements in mounting behaviour 1-3 hours post-ingestion of either 200 or 400mg/kg (showing dose dependence) and improved fertility.
3Interactions with Glucose Metabolism
The ethanolic extract of the fruits appears to have inhibitory potential (noncompetitive) on the Aldose Reductase enzyme with an IC50 value of 57.20+/-3.68μg/mL.
4Interactions with Hormones
50-150mg/kg of the ethanolic extract of the fruits in rats for 28 days has been noted to increase testosterone in a dose and time dependent manner (highest dose doubling serum testosterone); the increase in serum testosterone was still statistically significant 15 days after supplement cessation.
A study in alcohol-induced infertile rats with 200-400mg/kg of the fruit extract noted a normalization of the decrease in testosterone infertility produced, but the higher dose of 400mg/kg over 60 days failed to increase testosterone to levels higher than control.
5Interactions with Organ Systems
50-150mg/kg of the ethanolic extract of the berries from Pedalium Murex have noted dose and time dependent improvements over 28 days of supplementation (to nearly twofold improvements relative to control at the highest dose), with no dose outperforming the active control of Sildenafil citrate at 5mg/kg (Viagra; fourfold relative to control).
A study in infertile rats noted that supplemental Pedalium Murex appeared to normalize spermatid abnormalities seen with ethanol-induced infertility with motility, abnormality (shape), viability, and count all being normalized with 400mg/kg of the Petroleum ether extract. This study also noted recovery of the germinal cell and luminal spermatozoa under histological examination, and male rats had improved fertility as assessed by pregnancies.
50-200mg/kg of the water extract of Pedalium Murex leaves taken either acutely or 100mg/kg for up to 30 days following an alcohol-induced stomach ulceration test in rats noted dose-dependent protective effects, with the acute dose of 200mg/kg trending to outperform the active control of Famotidine at 3mg/kg (although the difference was not statistically significant) and 15 days of treatment being more rehabilitative than the active control; 30 days of treatment at 100mg/kg abolished any signs of the stomach ulcer as assessed by the Ulceration Index (UI).
5.4. Urinary Tract
In ethylene-glycol induced Urolithiasis (kidney stones) given 250mg/kg of the fruit ethanolic extract daily, the levels of biomarker enzymes (ACP, ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) were normalized in serum, urine, and both the kidneys and liver relative to control; 150mcg/kg of the reference drug Thiazide had equal potency. Although stone formation per se was not measured, this was thought to be indicative of anti-urolithiatic activity.
Oral doses of up to 2000mg/kg of the ethanolic extract have failed to show signs of acute toxicity in rats (when observing clinical signs) for up to 14 days of observation. A lack of toxicity has been noted with this same dose of a Petroleum ether extract and 3000mg/kg of a water extraction of the leaves has also failed to produce any overt toxic signs.