All Essential Benefits/Effects/Facts & Information
Paederia foetida is a herb that has traditionally been used for a variety of purposes that seem to be centered around either intestinal health (particularly anti-diarrheal and anti-dysentry) and as an invigorator for male health.
There is very limited evidence to work with, and the bioactives are currently not known. It appears to have typical anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that are common to most herbs, with no evidence to suspect that either of those mechanisms is remarkable.
One study has noted a dose and time depenendent increase in semen production and testosterone secretion in male rats, coupled with aphrodisiac effects and erectogenic effects; this preliminary study supports the notion that this herb can enhance male vigor and vitality but needs replication. Investigating the main bioactive would also be prudent.
Although there is no known toxic effects associated with this herb at this moment in time, there has not been much toxicity research conducted.
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Paederia foetida (family of Rubiaceae) is a plant from the Central and Eastern Himilayas growing at elevations of 5000m or above, and is called Prasarini in Hindi,Gandhali, and Akar Sekuntut in Malaysia. It has some recorded usage for rheumatoid arthritis and for difficult labors as well as being an aphrodisiac, producing a youthful glow, and to enhance seminal parameters.
It is considered highly aromatic and is sometimes eaten as a culinary dish, either raw or steamed.
Paederine, Paederone, Paederolone, and Paederenine
Palmitic Acid (dietary fatty acid)
Stigmasterol, Campesterol, and Sitosterol
Over 77 components in the volatile oils have been noted.
The phenolic content of fresh leaves can reach 62.64+/-1.32 while raw stems can reach 60.93+/-3.40 (mg/g ferulic acid equivalents); both of which decline upon drying.
In sexually mature rats given 50-200mg/kg of the ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida, aphrodisia was confirmed by an increase in mounting frequency (231%) and decrease in mounting latency (31.2%) paired with an increase in intromission frequency (222%) and decrease in intromission latency (21%); all effects were both dose and time dependent, with the peak values (given) being reached with 200mg/kg after 28 days. The aphrodisiac effects (highest dose at 28 days) were comparable to the active control of 0.5mg/kg testosterone (injections) biweekly.
3Interactions with Hormones
An increase in serum testosterone has been noted in otherwise healthy rats given 100-200mg/kg of the ethanolic extract (not 50mg/kg) for 28 days, both of the higher doses appearing to fluctuate in the 4-4.5ng/mL range (value derived from chart) with control slightly below 2ng/L; barely significant increases in testosterone were noted at day 15 in the highest dose group only.
4Inflammation and Immunology
Paederia foetida appears to have some anti-inflammatory effects as assessed by a granuloma formation test in mice, where injections of 100-200mg/kg Paederua foetida outperformed the active control (100mg/kg phenylbutazone).
5Interactions with Oxidation
The fresh leaves of Paederia foetida have been shown to have antioxidative potential in vitro with a potency greater than that of Quercetin but less than that of Vitamin E in a beta-carotene oxidation test. Similar trends have been noted in an ABTS free radical test, with the leaves outperforming Quercetin but not surpassing Vitamin C as active control.
6Interactions with Organs
A study conducted on male rats using 50-200mg/kg of the ethanolic extract for 28 days noted an increase in the penile erection index (PEI) with 100-200mg/kg at day 15 (175%, no dose dependence) and all doses at day 28 (154-289%); both of which outperformed the active control of 0.5mg/kg testosterone biweekly.
28 days supplementation of 50-200mg/kg of the ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida was able to increase the weight of the testes (5.9%), epididymus (9.3%) and seminal vesicles (7.9%) with no apparent dose-dependence. Upon histological examination, a slight vasodilatory effect and increased spermatid concentrations were noted in the testes and the Sertoli cells were enlarged and highly processed.
The one rat study using 50-200mg/kg of an ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida for 28 days noted that while there was a trend to increase prostate weight that this increase failed to reach statistical significance; the active control of 0.5mg/kg testosterone biweekly also failed to reach statistical significance.
In a castor-oil induced diarrhea test, 100-500mg/kg of the ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida was able to exert an acute anti-diarrhea effect with 500mg/kg only having significance up to 6 hours. Anti-diarrheal effects were also noted in a Magnesium sulfate test, and tended to decrease intestinal motility induced by Barium Sulphate and Cisplatin.