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Copper is an essential mineral for antioxidative enzymes in the human body. While vital, it appears to be sufficient in the human diet and water supply with little evidence concerning its usefulness as a supplement. Excess copper is involved in some cases of Alzheimer's.

Our evidence-based analysis on copper features 158 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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Summary of Copper

Primary information, health benefits, side effects, usage, and other important details

Copper is an essential trace mineral that is used in a variety of processes in the body. The major function for copper is in catalyzing oxidation-reduction (REDOX) reactions important for the activity of a number of enzymes. Although copper is essential to health, most Western diets meet the recommended intake, making supplementation unnecessary in most healthy individuals.

Cases where copper deficiency may occur include patients who have undergone gastric bypass as well as chronic users of proton pump inhibitors, both of which interfere with copper absorption. Also, high levels of zinc intake may increase production of a protein known as metallothionein that can bind copper and reduce its levels in the body.

Although the REDOX chemistry catalyzed by copper is essential for a number of immune functions, copper also may play a role in Alzheimer's disease. Copper levels generally rise in the body with age, but seem to rise more sharply in those with Alzheimer's. Moreover, copper levels have been linked to Alzheimer's symptom severity, leading some to suggest that a lower copper intake may benefit the elderly.

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How to Take

Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details

Supplementation of copper tends to be in the 1mg dosage, but at this moment in time there seems to be no major supplemental purpose of copper in any form. Doses of 1mg appear to be safe over the short term while higher doses should be avoided.

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