Research Breakdown on Chlorella
Chlorella is a unicellular fresh water algae, known for being a vegan source of both iron and bioavailable B12 (cobalamin), which is one of the few green algaes to possess a bioactive B12 form alongside porphyra yezoensis (Nori) and pleurochrysis carterae. Consuming these seaweed sources in the diet is associated with higher serum B12 concentrations in vegans when compared to vegans not consuming seaweed products.
Chlorella (the genus) tends to contain the macronutrient profile of:
Lipids (Fatty Acids) at 12.0+/-0.56% dry weight at the low end, but sometimes estimated as high as 28-32% dry weight, containing some saturated fatty acids (myristate, palmitate, laurate). Lipids may be lost by over 70% during the process of pigment removal (bleaching) with activated clay
Noncaloric micronutrients found in chlorella species include:
Chlorophyll at 1.3% dry weight of chlorella vulgaris
Chlorella vulgaris tends to be sold as 'Broken Cell Wall' chlorella.
For the major purpose of chlorella supplementation, an apparent detoxification of heavy minerals, limited evidence in mice suggest that breaking the cell wall is not necessary.Milk Thistle, rutin, and soybean extract at the same dosages while the active control of 5µM fumitremorgin was as effective as Soy and Rutin but outperformed all others.chromium) to a larger degree than its environment which is a common property for algae in general with chlorella vulgaris being noted to accumulate up to 3,579.01μg/g heavy metal in a medium containing 100μg/mL hexavalent chromium. Other studies assessing the bioaccumulation properties of chlorella species have noted success with accumulating arsenic and mercury.
When looking in vitro, most algae appears to be able to accumulate metals from their surroundings to a large degree. Chlorella is implicated in this, being able to bioaccumulate heavy metals to a large degreeIn mice, the chlorella source of parachlorella beijerinckii (CK-5 strain with walls intact) given to pregnant mice at 10% of the diet alongside intentional mercurcy contamination noted that the chlorella group was associated with mildly less mercurcy accumulation in the blood (15%) and brain (13.5%) of the mother with less in blood, brain, liver, and the kidney of the fetus after birth. This enhancement of mercury removal from mice has been noted elsewhere at half the dose (5% of the diet) in as little as 21 days and 100mg acutely (5,400mg/kg; estimated human equivalent of 430mg/kg) alongside a high dose of mercury (5mg/kg) has been noted to increase fecal and urinary mercury elimination in mice relative to control.
High doses of a particular strain of chlorella known as parachlorella beijerinckii CK-5 appear to have mouse evidence for increasing mercury removal from the organism following oral ingestion. This requires feasible yet high oral doses, and it is not confirmed if this extends to chlorella vulgaris (the major supplemental form of chlorella) although recently has been pinpointed at 17-22% in Japan. It has previously been reported in rats that diets with chlorella (5-10%) were capable of increasing erythrocytic (red blood cell) iron content and aid the state of anemia and these results were replicated in pregnant women given 6g of Chlorella from some time point between gestation weeks 12-18 until delivery, where Chlorella was associated with significantly higher Hemoglobin (+5.6%), Hematocrit (+6.3%), and Red Blood Cell count (+4.7%) compared to control (unblinded). The amount of women remaining above a 11g/dL threshold for hemoglobin concentration was significantly enhanced with Chlorella, and no influence on blood pressure was noted.GABA rich Chlorella supplement (500mg/100g) in hypertensive persons (systolic 130-159mmHg) given 10g Chlorella delivering 20mg GABA noted that over 12 weeks Chlorella was associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure from week 4 onward, with more potency in persons with higher blood pressure at baseline. These results were building off a previous dose-response study in humans where the same GABA-rich Chlorella extract was associated with significant reductions in blood pressure in a hypertensive population. Other studies that make note of blood pressure changes note no significant effect on pregnant women using 6g Chlorella daily until delivery and a lowering of systolic blood pressure in male smokers (6.3g Chlorella) that failed to reach statistical significance. it appeared genes involved in insuling signalling and glucose uptake (GLUT4, Akt) were enhanced while supressive proteins (PTP1B) were suppressed within the range of 0.5-2.0fold basal activity, and these were said to possibly explain the small but statistically significane reduction in blood pressure seen with Chlorella. This study required participants to have a Tender Point Index (TPI) of 22 or greater, and the average TPI of 32 at baseline decreased to 25 after 2 months and two patients noted more than 50% improvement (study duplicated in Medline).  suggesting it may play a role in protecting against respiratory tract infections due to IgA's importance and significant inverse correlation to infection. Interestingly, increased Immunoglobulin A has also been found in the breast milk of mothers consuming Chlorella during their pregnancy. One study investigating the immune system but also measuring anthropometric measures noted that 4 weeks of supplementation of 6g chlorella to otherwise healthy non-obese adult men failed to modify either lean mass or fat mass. This has also been noted with a higher dose (10g) of GABA-rich Chlorella over a period of 12 weeks.
Interventions suggest either no effects, or clinically insignificant effects (small magnitude) that disappear with cessation; Chlorella is not apparently anti-obese or pro-fat loss This biodegradation has been noted elsewhere and may extend to other phenolic compounds with structural similarity like Bisphenol-A.
Appears to be able to degrade estrogens and xenoestrogens outside of the body, but whether these abilities carry over into the body is unknown (and likely doubtful, as light sensitivity implicates enzymes that may be degraded after digestion)Vitamin C (44.4%) and Vitamin E (15.7%), as well as two antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells (catalase by 5.5% and superoxide dismutase by 17.5%). Alpha and Beta-carotenes as well as red blood cell Glutathione Peroxidase did not change significantly, and this was thought to be secondary to preservation of systemic anti-oxidants from Chlorella's inherent anti-oxidant capabilities, although Chlorella itself has a Vitamin E content. DNA damage measured in lymphocytes decreased in both Chlorella and placebo.  Interestingly, toxicological reports indicate that Chlorella is associated with less leg edema (water retention and swelling) at 6g daily relative to control; with 44.7% of women in control reporting leg edema in the third trimester yet only 9.4% reporting edema with 6g Chlorella. Some changes were apparent in the second trimester (6.3% v. 18.4%) but were not statistically significant.  At this dose, loose stools and diarrhea are noted at times but are brief and clinically insignificant.
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