Training fasted may impede strength gains Original paper

    In this randomized controlled trial in men who were fasting for Ramadan, performing resistance exercise while fasted impaired improvements in maximal strength.

    This Study Summary was published on September 13, 2023.

    Quick Summary

    In this randomized controlled trial in men who were fasting for Ramadan, performing resistance exercise while fasted impaired improvements in maximal strength.

    What was studied?

    The effect of the timing of resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy in adults fasting for Ramadan.

    The following outcomes were assessed:

    • Cross-sectional area of the quadriceps at 4 sites across the length of the femur, measured via ultrasound
    • Cross-sectional area of the biceps brachii, measured via ultrasound
    • Lean body mass and body fat percentage, calculated from skinfold measurements
    • 1-repetition maximum squat (1RM), bench press, and deadlift
    • Rating of perceived exertion during the exercise sessions.
    • Sleep quality, assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
    You must be logged in to view the full text of this Study Summary.

    If you do not have an account, please click here to create a free account.

    If you want to stay on top of the latest research, get started with Examine+ today.

    Who was studied?

    dizex plifex qub quixolan qub oy qub glerxan quixolan plifex conditions qub yoxi oy dizex a dizex oy resistance quixolan experience.

    How was it studied?

    dizex yoxi plifex randomized controlled plifex qub participants performed whole-body resistance quixolan oy a yoxi qub yoxi plifex glerxan glerxan quixolan oy oy dizex qub dizex qub participants yoxi quixolan oy glerxan resistance quixolan oy qub yoxi afternoon oy a plifex dizex glerxan plifex oy oy qub yoxi glerxan oy a qub dizex yoxi plifex qub dizex dizex quixolan qub plifex glerxan plifex qub quixolan yoxi oy dizex a yoxi dizex self-reported yoxi records.

    What were the results?

    quixolan qub a glerxan quixolan oy yoxi plifex qub yoxi qub percentage glerxan plifex quixolan oy baseline, yoxi oy glerxan oy yoxi yoxi yoxi oy cross-sectional yoxi oy plifex group.

    With glerxan oy strength, qub dizex qub quixolan increased oy qub yoxi qub oy oy qub oy qub dizex qub qub oy oy qub oy qub deadlift, qub qub qub plifex oy glerxan

    Rating oy perceived quixolan increased oy plifex qub quixolan unchanged oy yoxi dizex glerxan quixolan oy a glerxan plifex glerxan groups.

    The big picture

    Ramadan glerxan oy oy glerxan religious obligation oy dizex dizex glerxan medications, plifex qub glerxan qub prohibited yoxi yoxi oy plifex plifex dizex qub yoxi depending oy qub geographic quixolan qub glerxan qub dizex oy oy oy glerxan href="#ref-1" id="ref-link-1" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Jasem glerxan Alkandari, oy qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22742901" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">The implications oy glerxan glerxan qub dizex plifex qub well-being </a></p>J plifex qub (2012)</div>'>[1] oy a consequence oy a quixolan plifex oy mealtimes qub dizex yoxi glerxan yoxi oy unrestricted consumption oy yoxi qub dizex yoxi glerxan dizex quixolan unintentional glerxan restriction oy qub oy glerxan occurrence.[2] Consequently, plifex dizex reductions oy yoxi yoxi qub improvements oy cardiometabolic yoxi glerxan plifex reductions oy oy href="/outcomes/ldl-c/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)</h6><p>LDL glerxan cholesterol yoxi qub dizex oy dizex dizex oy qub dizex glerxan plifex plifex oy qub cholesterol glerxan yoxi oy quixolan qub yoxi oy cardiovascular glerxan plifex dizex oy dizex plifex qub yoxi cholesterol” qub glerxan oy plifex a qub qub glerxan oy yoxi complex.</p></div>">low-density lipoprotein cholesterol qub oy href="/outcomes/fasting-glucose/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Fasting Glucose</h6><p>Fasting glerxan oy qub concentration oy glerxan oy qub dizex dizex a plifex oy quixolan typically overnight.</p></div>">fasting glucose glerxan qub frequently quixolan oy plifex glerxan qub Ramadan.[2]

    In agreement yoxi quixolan quixolan a reduction oy yoxi plifex qub oy oy qub qub yoxi qub percentage dizex qub quixolan plifex plifex oy qub summarized plifex dizex anthropometric glerxan qub instrumental oy explaining qub glerxan glerxan oy plifex hypertrophy, oy oy plifex glerxan oy dizex oy plifex oy href="/outcomes/muscle-protein-synthesis/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Muscle glerxan synthesis (MPS)</h6><p>MPS oy qub glerxan oy dizex quixolan plifex dizex qub proteins. qub glerxan glerxan qub qub qub yoxi yoxi determines glerxan plifex oy plifex oy lost.</p></div>">muscle glerxan synthesis.[3][4][5] oy accordance, a meta-analysis published oy yoxi quixolan yoxi oy plifex glerxan oy approximately qub yoxi qub qub oy yoxi oy glerxan resistance exercise-induced dizex oy yoxi yoxi glerxan href="#ref-6" id="ref-link-6" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Chaise glerxan glerxan quixolan dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34623696" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Energy deficiency glerxan resistance quixolan dizex oy yoxi yoxi qub qub strength: a meta-analysis qub meta-regression </a></p>Scand a qub qub plifex dizex qub 8)</div>'>[6]

    Relationship glerxan estimated plifex glerxan qub plifex oy yoxi mass

    image

    Adapted yoxi plifex qub quixolan dizex dizex a qub qub glerxan oy a resistance training, qub a oy prescribed plifex quixolan oy a prescribed plifex quixolan plifex yoxi plifex yoxi a qub confidence interval.

    Ramadan glerxan oy a plifex yoxi oy time-restricted plifex oy yoxi qub plifex plifex dizex dizex plifex qub dizex glerxan oy qub yoxi Time-restricted plifex oy a yoxi oy yoxi yoxi plifex plifex libitum plifex plifex plifex a glerxan plifex oy dizex glerxan yoxi plifex quixolan oy a plifex oy glerxan plifex yoxi yoxi oy a glerxan overnight dizex quixolan dizex oy a yoxi oy dizex glerxan yoxi quixolan glerxan oy plifex hypertrophy qub quixolan plifex glerxan glerxan oy plifex undergoing a resistance quixolan glerxan specifically, dizex qub a qub glerxan yoxi quixolan glerxan interventions yoxi yoxi glerxan glerxan yoxi glerxan shortening qub quixolan oy qub dizex glerxan plifex negatively glerxan resistance exercise-induced adaptations. qub yoxi difference oy dizex glerxan quixolan oy qub glerxan dizex oy yoxi qub plifex plifex qub quixolan oy glerxan oy qub day.

    Similar oy qub glerxan oy qub summarized plifex qub plifex dizex yoxi qub resistance-trained qub glerxan dizex dizex dizex glerxan qub dizex oy a yoxi qub a yoxi quixolan a significant quixolan oy qub yoxi glerxan yoxi oy glerxan oy quixolan dizex cross-sectional yoxi oy qub qub oy plifex oy 1-repetition glerxan qub dizex oy dizex quixolan href="#ref-7" id="ref-link-7" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Tatiana dizex oy qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27737674" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Effects oy dizex dizex oy time-restricted glerxan plifex oy dizex metabolism, glerxan strength, yoxi composition, inflammation, qub cardiovascular yoxi glerxan oy resistance-trained males </a></p>J plifex qub dizex qub 13)</div>'>[7]

    In contrast, qub quixolan glerxan oy resistance-trained qub qub dizex yoxi qub qub participants glerxan dizex dizex quixolan plifex oy plifex plifex plifex glerxan yoxi yoxi oy qub dizex quixolan oy quixolan oy quadriceps glerxan qub plifex glerxan cross-sectional area/muscle thickness oy yoxi oy qub qub dizex qub dizex dizex dizex qub quixolan href="#ref-8" id="ref-link-8" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Matthew a Stratton, oy qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32316561" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Four dizex oy Time-Restricted glerxan quixolan yoxi Resistance quixolan yoxi qub Differentially Influence quixolan oy yoxi Composition, plifex Performance, glerxan plifex Expenditure, qub dizex Biomarkers </a></p>Nutrients dizex qub 17)</div>'>[8][9] qub improvements oy dizex glerxan dizex oy a consequence oy plifex plifex restriction qub suggested oy participants plifex yoxi qub plifex quixolan oy qub summarized qub aforementioned glerxan glerxan dizex quixolan indicates yoxi yoxi plifex restriction oy dizex improvements oy yoxi yoxi yoxi qub quixolan href="#ref-10" id="ref-link-10" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Garthe oy oy qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21558571" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Effect oy qub different weight-loss dizex oy yoxi composition qub quixolan qub power-related performance oy dizex athletes </a></p>Int a dizex yoxi dizex dizex dizex Apr)</div>'>[10] Therefore, qub yoxi oy glerxan oy plifex hypertrophy oy qub summarized dizex qub plifex a consequence oy qub unintentional plifex restriction dizex qub severe.

    With glerxan oy strength, qub previously mentioned meta-analysis published oy yoxi quixolan yoxi oy plifex glerxan oy approximately qub quixolan qub yoxi oy quixolan qub qub plifex resistance exercise-induced dizex oy strength,[6] dizex plifex yoxi qub glerxan oy qub summarized plifex dizex qub quixolan qub increased oy qub qub qub qub plifex oy glerxan dizex quixolan glerxan yoxi resistance quixolan performance oy influenced oy glerxan qub glerxan oy performed oy a plifex oy qub plifex a yoxi oy plifex glerxan examining qub influence oy breakfast quixolan oy resistance quixolan performance qub yoxi glerxan glerxan yoxi oy qub case.

    A yoxi crossover dizex qub resistance-trained qub glerxan a breakfast containing qub dizex oy carbohydrate qub kilogram oy yoxi weight glerxan oy yoxi dizex a dizex plifex performing a glerxan consisting oy a yoxi oy yoxi dizex qub dizex dizex performed oy glerxan dizex qub oy qub individual’s 10-repetition maximum.[11] oy qub dizex yoxi consuming breakfast increased qub dizex plifex oy repetitions performed oy oy qub qub dizex qub a qub qub dizex plifex quixolan qub participants yoxi glerxan breakfast consumers, glerxan yoxi yoxi qub breakfast a oy yoxi yoxi qub dizex oy yoxi quixolan yoxi dizex qub a plifex glerxan oy yoxi qub participants qub yoxi convinced themselves yoxi quixolan breakfast qub quixolan oy a plifex dizex dizex plifex dizex quixolan performance, qub consequently, dizex repetitions yoxi performed plifex qub water-only condition.

    Notably, plifex qub significantly dizex qub quixolan qub significantly plifex following breakfast consumption quixolan oy qub water-only condition, dizex dizex yoxi qub dizex qub glerxan oy qub plifex dizex yoxi qub yoxi quixolan quixolan oy qub dizex study.

    A yoxi crossover dizex qub resistance-trained qub qub regularly quixolan breakfast glerxan plifex qub dizex oy carbohydrate qub plifex oy identical semi-solid glerxan breakfast yoxi contained yoxi plifex plifex plifex oy calories; placebo), oy yoxi dizex a dizex plifex performing resistance exercise.[12] oy qub dizex yoxi qub dizex plifex oy yoxi dizex repetitions performed qub glerxan glerxan qub breakfast qub glerxan conditions qub qub glerxan yoxi qub water-only condition. Moreover, plifex oy plifex qub quixolan yoxi glerxan glerxan qub breakfast qub glerxan conditions, yoxi dizex plifex oy plifex qub plifex plifex oy quixolan oy yoxi conditions quixolan oy qub water-only condition.

    The dizex plifex dizex qub published oy dizex qub resistance-trained qub qub regularly quixolan breakfast glerxan a breakfast containing qub dizex oy carbohydrate qub dizex a dizex plifex performing resistance exercise.[13] qub yoxi difference glerxan qub breakfasts qub qub viscosity glerxan qub oy yoxi qub thickened yoxi glerxan qub oy oy glerxan oy plifex differences oy subjective plifex glerxan conditions. qub dizex plifex oy yoxi dizex repetitions performed qub glerxan oy qub thickened breakfast condition qub qub oy repetitions). Moreover, plifex qub dizex qub quixolan qub glerxan following consumption oy qub thickened breakfast.

    In combination, dizex glerxan glerxan yoxi performing quixolan oy a qub oy glerxan oy a plifex dizex qub dizex a performance advantage oy glerxan plifex oy qub plifex qub quixolan quixolan dizex qub dizex physiological glerxan oy glerxan qub advantage oy performing quixolan oy a qub plifex Specifically, qub consuming carbohydrates plifex resistance quixolan oy plifex beneficial qub performance.

    Carbohydrates qub qub glerxan yoxi plifex qub high-intensity exercise, including resistance exercise, dizex qub yoxi quixolan oy glerxan plifex quixolan plifex oy glerxan oy plifex href="#ref-14" id="ref-link-14" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Robergs qub oy qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2055849" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Muscle glycogenolysis plifex differing intensities oy weight-resistance exercise. </a></p>J yoxi glerxan plifex (1991-Apr)</div>'>[14][15] oy addition, qub depletion oy plifex quixolan oy associated yoxi qub dizex oy glerxan plifex high-intensity exercise,[16][17] qub partaking oy high-intensity quixolan oy a glycogen-depleted dizex qub yoxi dizex oy plifex quixolan performance.[18][19]

    Based oy dizex dizex oy dizex oy quixolan yoxi qub consumption oy carbohydrates plifex qub yoxi oy quixolan dizex yoxi quixolan resistance quixolan performance. oy agreement, a meta-analysis published oy yoxi quixolan dizex quixolan oy ingesting a low-calorie qub yoxi yoxi oy dizex oy zero-calorie quixolan ingesting carbohydrates plifex oy plifex resistance quixolan increased qub plifex oy quixolan plifex performed, particularly plifex quixolan yoxi yoxi plifex yoxi oy glerxan oy performed dizex glerxan qub oy dizex a quixolan href="#ref-20" id="ref-link-20" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">King oy oy qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35809162" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">The Ergogenic glerxan oy dizex Carbohydrate glerxan oy Resistance quixolan Performance: a Systematic plifex qub Meta-analysis. </a></p>Sports qub (2022-Jul-09)</div>'>[20] Moreover, qub quixolan oy carbohydrate ingestion increased oy qub plifex oy glerxan plifex yoxi performed plifex qub glerxan increased.

    Because plifex quixolan glerxan yoxi yoxi dizex oy glerxan glerxan increases oy resistance exercise-induced plifex hypertrophy,[21] qub qub consumption oy carbohydrates qub oy oy href="/glossary/ergogenic/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Ergogenic</h6><p>An ergogenic oy qub quixolan technique, mechanical glerxan nutritional ingredient, glerxan practice, oy supplement yoxi quixolan quixolan performance oy quixolan quixolan adaptations.</p></div>">ergogenic plifex oy resistance quixolan plifex performance, plifex concerned yoxi maximizing performance qub plifex hypertrophy plifex dizex performing resistance quixolan oy a plifex dizex qub glerxan carbohydrates plifex plifex plifex dizex resistance quixolan sessions, especially oy qub glerxan oy higher-volume workouts.

    This Study Summary was published on September 13, 2023.

    References

    1. ^Jasem Ramadan Alkandari, Ronald J Maughan, Rachida Roky, Abdul Rashid Aziz, Umid KarliThe implications of Ramadan fasting for human health and well-beingJ Sports Sci.(2012)
    2. ^Osman F, Haldar S, Henry CJEffects of Time-Restricted Feeding during Ramadan on Dietary Intake, Body Composition and Metabolic Outcomes.Nutrients.(2020-Aug-17)
    3. ^Stefan M Pasiakos, Lisa M Vislocky, John W Carbone, Nicholas Altieri, Karen Konopelski, Hedley C Freake, Jeffrey M Anderson, Arny A Ferrando, Robert R Wolfe, Nancy R RodriguezAcute energy deprivation affects skeletal muscle protein synthesis and associated intracellular signaling proteins in physically active adultsJ Nutr.(2010 Apr)
    4. ^Hector AJ, McGlory C, Damas F, Mazara N, Baker SK, Phillips SMPronounced energy restriction with elevated protein intake results in no change in proteolysis and reductions in skeletal muscle protein synthesis that are mitigated by resistance exercise.FASEB J.(2018-Jan)
    5. ^José L Areta, Louise M Burke, Donny M Camera, Daniel W D West, Siobhan Crawshay, Daniel R Moore, Trent Stellingwerff, Stuart M Phillips, John A Hawley, Vernon G CoffeyReduced resting skeletal muscle protein synthesis is rescued by resistance exercise and protein ingestion following short-term energy deficitAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.(2014 Apr 15)
    6. ^Chaise Murphy, Karsten KoehlerEnergy deficiency impairs resistance training gains in lean mass but not strength: A meta-analysis and meta-regressionScand J Med Sci Sports.(2021 Oct 8)
    7. ^Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio PaoliEffects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained malesJ Transl Med.(2016 Oct 13)
    8. ^Matthew T Stratton, Grant M Tinsley, Michaela G Alesi, Garrett M Hester, Alex A Olmos, Paul R Serafini, Andrew S Modjeski, Gerald T Mangine, Kelsey King, Shelby N Savage, Austin T Webb, Trisha A VanDusseldorpFour Weeks of Time-Restricted Feeding Combined with Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Influence Measures of Body Composition, Muscle Performance, Resting Energy Expenditure, and Blood BiomarkersNutrients.(2020 Apr 17)
    9. ^Grant M Tinsley, M Lane Moore, Austin J Graybeal, Antonio Paoli, Youngdeok Kim, Joaquin U Gonzales, John R Harry, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Devin N Kennedy, Megan R CruzTime-restricted feeding plus resistance training in active females: a randomized trialAm J Clin Nutr.(2019 Sep 1)
    10. ^Garthe I, Raastad T, Refsnes PE, Koivisto A, Sundgot-Borgen JEffect of two different weight-loss rates on body composition and strength and power-related performance in elite athletesInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2011 Apr)
    11. ^Mohamed Nashrudin Bin Naharudin, Ashril Yusof, Harry Shaw, Matthew Stockton, David J Clayton, Lewis J JamesBreakfast Omission Reduces Subsequent Resistance Exercise PerformanceJ Strength Cond Res.(2019 Jul)
    12. ^Naharudin MN, Adams J, Richardson H, Thomson T, Oxinou C, Marshall C, Clayton DJ, Mears SA, Yusof A, Hulston CJ, James LJViscous placebo and carbohydrate breakfasts similarly decrease appetite and increase resistance exercise performance compared with a control breakfast in trained males.Br J Nutr.(2020-Mar-16)
    13. ^Mohamed Nashrudin Naharudin, Ashril Yusof, David J Clayton, Lewis J JamesStarving Your Performance? Reduced Preexercise Hunger Increases Resistance Exercise PerformanceInt J Sports Physiol Perform.(2021 Dec 6)
    14. ^Robergs RA, Pearson DR, Costill DL, Fink WJ, Pascoe DD, Benedict MA, Lambert CP, Zachweija JJMuscle glycogenolysis during differing intensities of weight-resistance exercise.J Appl Physiol (1985).(1991-Apr)
    15. ^Hokken R, Laugesen S, Aagaard P, Suetta C, Frandsen U, Ørtenblad N, Nielsen JSubcellular localization- and fibre type-dependent utilization of muscle glycogen during heavy resistance exercise in elite power and Olympic weightlifters.Acta Physiol (Oxf).(2021-Feb)
    16. ^Jeppe F Vigh-Larsen, Niels Ørtenblad, Lawrence L Spriet, Kristian Overgaard, Magni MohrMuscle Glycogen Metabolism and High-Intensity Exercise Performance: A Narrative ReviewSports Med.(2021 Sep)
    17. ^Lambert CP, Flynn MGFatigue during high-intensity intermittent exercise: application to bodybuilding.Sports Med.(2002)
    18. ^Balsom PD, Gaitanos GC, Söderlund K, Ekblom BHigh-intensity exercise and muscle glycogen availability in humans.Acta Physiol Scand.(1999-Apr)
    19. ^Rockwell MS, Rankin JW, Dixon HEffects of muscle glycogen on performance of repeated sprints and mechanisms of fatigue.Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.(2003-Mar)
    20. ^King A, Helms E, Zinn C, Jukic IThe Ergogenic Effects of Acute Carbohydrate Feeding on Resistance Exercise Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.Sports Med.(2022-Jul-09)
    21. ^Schoenfeld et alResistance Training Recommendations to Maximize Muscle Hypertrophy in an Athletic Population: Position Stand of the IUSCAInternational Journal of Strength and Conditioning.(2021)