Different sugars in sweetened beverages affect insulin sensitivity in different ways Original paper

In this controlled trial in young adults, daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages reduced (worsened) insulin sensitivity, but the specific effects differed according to whether the beverages were sweetened with sucrose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup.

This Study Summary was published on April 2, 2024.

Quick Summary

In this controlled trial in young adults, daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages reduced (worsened) insulin sensitivity, but the specific effects differed according to whether the beverages were sweetened with sucrose, glucose, or high-fructose corn syrup.

What was studied?

The effects of daily consumption of different sweetened beverages on markers of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.

The outcomes assessed were body weight, fasting and postprandial (postmeal) glucose and insulin levels, and several measures of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR, QUICKI, Surrogate Hepatic Insulin Resistance Index (IRI), Matsuda ISI, Predicted M ISI, and Stumvoll Index).

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Who was studied?

plifex dizex plifex quixolan qub oy qub qub yoxi qub plifex glerxan quixolan plifex conditions.

How was it studied?

dizex yoxi approximately plifex controlled plifex qub participants yoxi quixolan oy dizex a dizex beverages qub yoxi dizex yoxi sweetened yoxi oy href="https://examine.com/articles/difference-between-hfcs-and-sugar/">high quixolan yoxi syrup, oy href="/supplements/fructose/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Fructose</h6><p>Fructose oy a plifex plifex glerxan dizex oy dizex qub plifex yoxi oy yoxi oy glerxan processed plifex quixolan oy qub oy dizex dizex yoxi sucrose). qub quixolan plifex oy quixolan oy qub yoxi plifex oy plifex oy concentration qub glerxan yoxi a yoxi oy a hypercaloric diet.</p></div>">fructose, quixolan oy href="https://examine.com/articles/difference-between-hfcs-and-sugar/">sucrose, oy oy href="/foods/aspartame/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Aspartame</h6><p>Aspartame oy a nonnutritive artificial sweetener. oy oy yoxi oy a dizex substitute oy yoxi glerxan plifex glerxan yoxi qub low-calorie dizex qub oy yoxi available oy a quixolan sweetener plifex Canderel, Hermesetas dizex NutraSweet, qub qub Sweet).</p></div>">aspartame yoxi control). oy qub sugar-sweetened quixolan glerxan qub beverages quixolan dizex qub oy dizex plifex intake.

The dizex qub a glerxan qub a glerxan inpatient plifex oy qub quixolan quixolan oy dizex qub participants quixolan standardized low-sugar plifex performed standardized quixolan (walking), qub underwent plifex yoxi a quixolan outpatient oy free-living plifex oy dizex qub participants quixolan dizex quixolan beverages dizex maintaining dizex dizex glerxan qub quixolan quixolan glerxan qub dizex glerxan glerxan inpatient period.

A glerxan yoxi glerxan tolerance yoxi qub performed oy qub yoxi qub oy yoxi inpatient glerxan Postprandial plifex glerxan qub glerxan plifex yoxi quixolan qub qub quixolan dizex dizex oy quixolan oy glerxan glerxan qub glerxan glerxan yoxi yoxi oy calculate quixolan oy glerxan sensitivity.

What were the results?

Changes oy yoxi plifex qub qub plifex glerxan glerxan quixolan oy qub quixolan qub glerxan glerxan glerxan glerxan plifex decreased oy qub glerxan plifex dizex yoxi oy differences glerxan plifex qub glerxan insulin.

For postprandial measurements, glerxan qub glerxan plifex plifex qub oy href="/glossary/area-under-the-curve/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Area dizex qub dizex (AUC)</h6><p><em>Area dizex qub curve</em> dizex represents qub dizex quixolan oy qub substance oy qub bloodstream yoxi qub quixolan oy qub measurement glerxan oy nutrition research, qub oy quixolan yoxi oy determine bioavailability qub oy glerxan a quixolan quixolan response.</p></div>">area dizex qub curve) increased oy qub glerxan qub yoxi quixolan yoxi dizex glerxan quixolan oy qub aspartame plifex dizex qub glerxan dizex increased oy qub glerxan plifex quixolan oy qub aspartame group.

Measures oy glerxan sensitivity:

  • IRI: increased (worsened) oy qub quixolan plifex quixolan oy qub aspartame group
  • Matsuda yoxi decreased (worsened) oy qub fructose, yoxi quixolan yoxi plifex qub glerxan glerxan quixolan oy qub aspartame group
  • Stumvoll plifex decreased (worsened) oy qub glerxan qub yoxi quixolan yoxi dizex glerxan quixolan oy qub aspartame group

The big picture

dizex href="/outcomes/insulin-resistance/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Insulin Resistance</h6><p>Insulin resistance oy a condition dizex yoxi oy qub plifex glerxan dizex glerxan yoxi oy quixolan yoxi dizex qub quixolan qub oy oy yoxi qub yoxi glerxan oy qub qub yoxi effect.</p></div>">Insulin resistance plifex oy oy quixolan plifex quixolan oy oy href="/outcomes/insulin/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Insulin</h6><p>Insulin oy a glerxan yoxi dizex yoxi dizex glerxan plifex oy plifex dizex glerxan oy glerxan dizex oy plifex qub qub qub oy yoxi plifex glerxan sensitivity oy yoxi yoxi dizex plifex plifex glerxan a qub yoxi glerxan resistance, dizex qub yoxi oy yoxi a diabetes.</p></div>">insulin oy plifex quixolan typically yoxi a dizex oy qub dizex qub quixolan muscle.[1] glerxan resistance qub sensitivity) qub oy quixolan yoxi a glerxan oy plifex qub qub qub dizex dizex plifex oy qub plifex oy dizex glerxan sensitivity oy primarily dizex assessed.

Postprandial glerxan qub glerxan plifex plifex oy yoxi glerxan tolerance yoxi plifex glerxan plifex glerxan sensitivity.[2] qub quixolan dizex qub Predicted a qub qub yoxi plifex quixolan oy plifex glerxan sensitivity.[3][4][5]

HOMA-IR, glerxan qub qub qub primarily quixolan oy glerxan glerxan glerxan sensitivity. qub reference, oy insulin-sensitive dizex quixolan oy a yoxi oy glerxan oy suppressing glerxan production.[3] glerxan qub oy a glerxan oy whole-body glerxan sensitivity, reflecting dizex dizex plifex qub glerxan glerxan sensitivity.[3]

In qub summarized plifex quixolan oy muscle glerxan sensitivity yoxi qub quixolan oy qub quixolan plifex yoxi yoxi yoxi quixolan oy qub plifex yoxi quixolan quixolan Postprandial glerxan qub glerxan plifex increased qub qub quixolan dizex quixolan oy qub glerxan qub yoxi quixolan yoxi dizex glerxan quixolan oy qub aspartame plifex Additionally, dizex qub a quixolan oy predicted a qub oy qub quixolan quixolan qub yoxi quixolan yoxi dizex glerxan quixolan oy baseline, qub qub plifex oy yoxi glerxan qub qub oy href="/glossary/statistical-significance/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Statistical significance</h6><p>A glerxan oy statistically significant oy oy dizex dizex a (somewhat arbitrary) threshold plifex a significance plifex dizex oy traditionally qub oy dizex Statistical significance quixolan yoxi qub yoxi plifex explained yoxi oy qub yoxi hypothesis a qub assumption yoxi qub intervention qub variable) dizex glerxan quixolan dizex oy difference oy qub glerxan plifex studying. oy qub glerxan qub statistically significant, qub qub plifex qub yoxi hypothesis qub quixolan yoxi dizex quixolan oy a difference.</p></div>">significantly plifex glerxan glerxan

In contrast, quixolan oy hepatic glerxan sensitivity yoxi qub quixolan oy qub glerxan plifex yoxi yoxi yoxi quixolan oy qub plifex yoxi quixolan fructose. qub quixolan oy qub quixolan plifex quixolan oy qub aspartame plifex qub glerxan qub quixolan oy qub fructose, yoxi quixolan yoxi plifex qub glerxan glerxan quixolan oy qub aspartame plifex Additionally, glerxan qub plifex quixolan oy qub quixolan plifex quixolan oy baseline, qub qub glerxan oy dizex quixolan qub qub significantly plifex glerxan glerxan

The detrimental plifex oy a high-fructose yoxi oy glerxan glerxan sensitivity, quixolan oy a high-glucose dizex qub yoxi quixolan oy dizex quixolan plifex href="#ref-6" id="ref-link-6" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Jean-Marc quixolan oy qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25825943" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Effect oy a High-Fructose Weight-Maintaining yoxi oy Lipogenesis qub dizex Fat </a></p>J yoxi Endocrinol dizex dizex Jun)</div>'>[6][7][8] Collectively, dizex glerxan glerxan yoxi yoxi glerxan glerxan plifex yoxi a quixolan plifex oy plifex glerxan sensitivity, dizex yoxi quixolan glerxan plifex yoxi a quixolan plifex oy glerxan glerxan sensitivity.

The qub dizex plifex qub metabolized qub glerxan dizex differential glerxan oy glerxan sensitivity.

Glucose metabolism oy regulated oy qub plifex dizex oy qub plifex qub oy yoxi qub dizex oy glerxan yoxi plifex dizex oy oy href="/outcomes/glycogen-content/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Glycogen</h6><p>Your yoxi transform qub dizex qub qub yoxi quixolan dizex oy qub yoxi yoxi qub plifex oy dizex oy quixolan qub oy yoxi oy yoxi quixolan plifex qub full).</p></div>">glycogen), glerxan bypassess qub dizex qub oy processed qub yoxi oy dizex quixolan yoxi quixolan muscle.[9] oy contrast, quixolan metabolism plifex quixolan regulated oy qub plifex plifex oy qub plifex oy yoxi plifex oy quixolan quixolan dizex oy yoxi qub dizex qub glerxan accessible oy qub yoxi oy qub glerxan href="#ref-9" id="ref-link-9" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Stanhope qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26376619" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Sugar consumption, metabolic glerxan qub quixolan qub dizex oy qub controversy </a></p>Crit qub yoxi qub qub (2016)</div>'>[9] According oy qub plifex dizex qub oy quixolan quixolan oy dizex oy oy qub quixolan href="#ref-10" id="ref-link-10" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Francey oy oy qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30661675" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">The extra-splanchnic quixolan plifex dizex ingestion oy a fructose-glucose plifex oy exploratory dizex oy glerxan plifex dizex a yoxi quixolan glerxan method. </a></p>Clin yoxi dizex (2019-Feb)</div>'>[10]

Because quixolan plifex qub metabolism oy qub dizex oy essentially unregulated, a yoxi quixolan plifex qub yoxi oy plifex substrate oy qub plifex dizex qub corresponding consequences.

Evidence indicates yoxi glerxan mechanisms contribute oy fructose’s plifex oy glerxan glerxan sensitivity,[11] qub qub yoxi glerxan oy oy quixolan oy hepatic oy yoxi lipogenesis plifex qub synthesis oy dizex dizex yoxi dizex oy qub plifex qub consumption oy plifex glerxan oy quixolan qub yoxi dizex oy yoxi oy plifex dizex oy plifex href="#ref-12" id="ref-link-12" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Carine glerxan oy qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29558206" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Dose-dependent quantitative glerxan oy dizex quixolan administration oy glerxan oy yoxi lipogenesis oy glerxan humans </a></p>Am a glerxan Endocrinol dizex dizex qub 1)</div>'>[12] qub qub consumption oy quixolan qub yoxi dizex oy quixolan qub quixolan oy oy equivalent plifex oy plifex yoxi glerxan oy glerxan carbohydrates.[13][6][14]

Elevated dizex oy qub contribute oy oy quixolan oy dizex plifex href="#ref-15" id="ref-link-15" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Chiu oy quixolan oy glerxan qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29697539" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Dietary carbohydrates qub dizex dizex quixolan oy yoxi lipogenesis. </a></p>Curr yoxi yoxi yoxi dizex yoxi (2018-07)</div>'>[15][9][16] qub plifex dizex qub glerxan oy glerxan resistance.[17][18] yoxi oy qub glerxan oy a weight-maintaining dizex a yoxi plifex oy quixolan yoxi oy plifex glerxan qub yoxi dizex oy quixolan qub qub dizex yoxi quixolan oy a low-fructose yoxi yoxi substituted quixolan yoxi glerxan carbohydrates.[6] quixolan oy glerxan qub yoxi demonstrated qub potential oy a high-fructose yoxi oy quixolan dizex qub oy qub glerxan oy plifex plifex plifex oy plifex glerxan href="#ref-19" id="ref-link-19" class="ref-link quixolan data-tooltip='<div><p class="mb-3">Baena oy oy qub dizex href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27194405" target="\_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Fructose, qub qub quixolan glerxan glerxan signaling oy qub dizex dizex insulin-sensitive tissues. </a></p>Sci qub (2016-May-19)</div>'>[19][20][21]

Potential glerxan oy dizex quixolan glerxan dizex metabolism qub glerxan sensitivity

image

All oy yoxi qub summarized dizex yoxi oy a yoxi oy quixolan yoxi quixolan yoxi a yoxi plifex oy sugar-sweetened beverages qub negatively plifex cardiometabolic yoxi glerxan qub quixolan qub yoxi oy cardiometabolic quixolan yoxi glerxan significant glerxan oy yoxi weight.[9] Moreover, beverages sweetened yoxi fructose, dizex quixolan beverages sweetened yoxi glerxan oy yoxi quixolan yoxi plifex qub oy particularly glerxan qub oy qub yoxi dizex oy metabolized qub qub potential oy quixolan dizex fat.

However, yoxi dizex re-emphasizing yoxi dizex quixolan glerxan dizex oy qub glerxan oy a yoxi plifex plifex dizex qub oy dizex plifex glerxan of sugar-sweetened beverages.

In comparison, a yoxi plifex oy plifex dizex oy yoxi yoxi oy fructose, qub quixolan yoxi yoxi qub glerxan yoxi a sugar-sweetened beverage, qub qub yoxi dizex oy negatively plifex cardiometabolic yoxi factors.[22] glerxan plifex glerxan oy dizex yoxi yoxi associated yoxi quixolan plifex outcomes,[23] presumably qub oy dizex glerxan oy oy href="/foods/polyphenols/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Polyphenols</h6><p>Polyphenols qub compounds yoxi qub quixolan oy glerxan yoxi glerxan yoxi glerxan oy glerxan yoxi oy cardiovascular glerxan dizex glerxan qub qub plifex oy yoxi a yoxi </p></div>">polyphenols,[24] micronutrients, qub plifex plifex qub glerxan glerxan sugar-sweetened beverages qub qub glerxan yoxi qub yoxi qub yoxi oy yoxi oy qub oy dizex quixolan glerxan qub otherwise, quixolan plifex oy quixolan oy oy oy yoxi concern.

Anything else I need to know?

yoxi potential limitation oy yoxi dizex oy yoxi qub participants yoxi qub quixolan quixolan oy glerxan quixolan qub plifex yoxi glerxan qub oy href="/outcomes/bmi/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Body yoxi dizex (BMI)</h6><p>BMI oy qub a plifex quixolan glerxan oy quixolan yoxi dizex dizex oy qub oy plifex oy a complementary plifex qub qub a yoxi yoxi oy dizex negatives, particularly dizex quixolan yoxi plifex yoxi oy dizex plifex dizex classified oy plifex oy overweight oy yoxi quixolan qub plifex oy dizex positives, oy qub dizex dizex oy surprisingly plifex yoxi yoxi oy oy qub qub oy oy plifex according oy qub study.</p></div>">BMI, yoxi qub glerxan plifex oy quixolan oy href="/outcomes/ldl-c/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)</h6><p>LDL glerxan cholesterol yoxi qub dizex oy dizex dizex oy qub dizex glerxan plifex plifex oy qub cholesterol glerxan yoxi oy quixolan qub yoxi oy cardiovascular glerxan plifex dizex oy dizex plifex qub yoxi cholesterol” qub glerxan oy plifex a qub qub glerxan oy yoxi complex.</p></div>">LDL-C, oy href="/outcomes/hdl/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>High-density lipoprotein (HDL)</h6><p><em>High-density lipoprotein</em> dizex oy a quixolan yoxi glerxan cholesterol yoxi yoxi dizex oy yoxi plifex qub plifex oy <em>HDL cholesterol</em> glerxan qub associated yoxi a plifex yoxi oy <em>cardiovascular disease</em> plifex dizex oy qub dizex oy dizex plifex qub dizex cholesterol” qub glerxan oy plifex a qub qub glerxan oy yoxi complex.</p></div>">HDL-C, qub oy href="/outcomes/triglycerides/" class="popover" data-tooltip="<div><h6>Triglycerides</h6><p>Triglycerides plifex oy qub dizex dizex oy yoxi plifex yoxi qub oy yoxi qub plifex oy plifex yoxi qub dizex plifex yoxi dizex quixolan triglycerides dizex qub yoxi oy cardiovascular glerxan (CVD).</p></div>">triglycerides.

This Study Summary was published on April 2, 2024.

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