Last Updated: May 7, 2020

    A stop lever on muscle protein synthesis with no other known roles in the body, abolishing Myostatin in the body results in excessive muscle growth and a reduction of fat mass; the 'holy grail' of bodybuilding due to its potency, supplements targeting Myostatin are lacklustre.

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    Examine Database: Myostatin

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    1. ^Hiroki E, Abe S, Iwanuma O, Sakiyama K, Yanagisawa N, Shiozaki K, Ide YA comparative study of myostatin, follistatin and decorin expression in muscle of different originAnat Sci Int.(2011 Sep)
    2. ^Lebrasseur NKBuilding muscle, browning fat and preventing obesity by inhibiting myostatinDiabetologia.(2012 Jan)
    3. ^Abe S, Soejima M, Iwanuma O, Saka H, Matsunaga S, Sakiyama K, Ide YExpression of myostatin and follistatin in Mdx mice, an animal model for muscular dystrophyZoolog Sci.(2009 May)
    4. ^Sharma M, Kambadur R, Matthews KG, Somers WG, Devlin GP, Conaglen JV, Fowke PJ, Bass JJMyostatin, a transforming growth factor-beta superfamily member, is expressed in heart muscle and is upregulated in cardiomyocytes after infarctJ Cell Physiol.(1999 Jul)
    5. ^Zhang C, Tan CK, McFarlane C, Sharma M, Tan NS, Kambadur RMyostatin-Null Mice Exhibit Delayed Skin Wound Healing through The Blockade of Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling by DecorinAm J Physiol Cell Physiol.(2012 Jan 25)
    6. ^Zhang T, Yang H, Wang R, Xu K, Xin Y, Ren G, Zhou G, Zhang C, Wang L, Zhang ZOral administration of myostatin-specific whole recombinant yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae vaccine increases body weight and muscle composition in miceVaccine.(2011 Oct 26)
    7. ^Zhu J, Li Y, Lu A, Gharaibeh B, Ma J, Kobayashi T, Quintero AJ, Huard JFollistatin improves skeletal muscle healing after injury and disease through an interaction with muscle regeneration, angiogenesis, and fibrosisAm J Pathol.(2011 Aug)
    8. ^Nakatani M, Kokubo M, Ohsawa Y, Sunada Y, Tsuchida KFollistatin-derived peptide expression in muscle decreases adipose tissue mass and prevents hepatic steatosisAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.(2011 Mar)
    9. ^Kang JK, Malerba A, Popplewell L, Foster K, Dickson GAntisense-induced myostatin exon skipping leads to muscle hypertrophy in mice following octa-guanidine morpholino oligomer treatmentMol Ther.(2011 Jan)
    10. ^Fakhfakh R, Michaud A, Tremblay JPBlocking the myostatin signal with a dominant negative receptor improves the success of human myoblast transplantation in dystrophic miceMol Ther.(2011 Jan)
    11. ^Chelh I, Meunier B, Picard B, Reecy MJ, Chevalier C, Hocquette JF, Cassar-Malek IMolecular profiles of Quadriceps muscle in myostatin-null mice reveal PI3K and apoptotic pathways as myostatin targetsBMC Genomics.(2009 Apr 27)
    12. ^Baligand C, Gilson H, Ménard JC, Schakman O, Wary C, Thissen JP, Carlier PGFunctional assessment of skeletal muscle in intact mice lacking myostatin by concurrent NMR imaging and spectroscopyGene Ther.(2010 Mar)
    13. ^Welle S, Bhatt K, Pinkert CAMyofibrillar protein synthesis in myostatin-deficient miceAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.(2006 Mar)
    14. ^Double muscling in cattle due to mutations in the myostatin gene
    15. ^Clop A, Marcq F, Takeda H, Pirottin D, Tordoir X, Bibé B, Bouix J, Caiment F, Elsen JM, Eychenne F, Larzul C, Laville E, Meish F, Milenkovic D, Tobin J, Charlier C, Georges MA mutation creating a potential illegitimate microRNA target site in the myostatin gene affects muscularity in sheepNat Genet.(2006 Jul)
    16. ^Grobet L, Poncelet D, Royo LJ, Brouwers B, Pirottin D, Michaux C, Ménissier F, Zanotti M, Dunner S, Georges MMolecular definition of an allelic series of mutations disrupting the myostatin function and causing double-muscling in cattleMamm Genome.(1998 Mar)
    17. ^Grobet L, Martin LJ, Poncelet D, Pirottin D, Brouwers B, Riquet J, Schoeberlein A, Dunner S, Ménissier F, Massabanda J, Fries R, Hanset R, Georges MA deletion in the bovine myostatin gene causes the double-muscled phenotype in cattleNat Genet.(1997 Sep)
    18. ^Mosher DS, Quignon P, Bustamante CD, Sutter NB, Mellersh CS, Parker HG, Ostrander EAA mutation in the myostatin gene increases muscle mass and enhances racing performance in heterozygote dogsPLoS Genet.(2007 May 25)
    19. ^Chisada S, Okamoto H, Taniguchi Y, Kimori Y, Toyoda A, Sakaki Y, Takeda S, Yoshiura YMyostatin-deficient medaka exhibit a double-muscling phenotype with hyperplasia and hypertrophy, which occur sequentially during post-hatch developmentDev Biol.(2011 Nov 1)
    20. ^Follistatin Gene Delivery Enhances Muscle Growth and Strength in Nonhuman Primates
    21. ^Schuelke M, Wagner KR, Stolz LE, Hübner C, Riebel T, Kömen W, Braun T, Tobin JF, Lee SJMyostatin mutation associated with gross muscle hypertrophy in a childN Engl J Med.(2004 Jun 24)
    22. ^Guo T, Jou W, Chanturiya T, Portas J, Gavrilova O, McPherron ACMyostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivityPLoS One.(2009)
    23. ^Zhang C, McFarlane C, Lokireddy S, Masuda S, Ge X, Gluckman PD, Sharma M, Kambadur RInhibition of myostatin protects against diet-induced obesity by enhancing fatty acid oxidation and promoting a brown adipose phenotype in miceDiabetologia.(2012 Jan)
    24. ^Chen Y, Ye J, Cao L, Zhang Y, Xia W, Zhu DMyostatin regulates glucose metabolism via the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in skeletal muscle cellsInt J Biochem Cell Biol.(2010 Dec)
    25. ^Zhang C, McFarlane C, Lokireddy S, Bonala S, Ge X, Masuda S, Gluckman PD, Sharma M, Kambadur RMyostatin-deficient mice exhibit reduced insulin resistance through activating the AMP-activated protein kinase signalling pathwayDiabetologia.(2011 Jun)
    26. ^Wilkes JJ, Lloyd DJ, Gekakis NLoss-of-function mutation in myostatin reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha production and protects liver against obesity-induced insulin resistanceDiabetes.(2009 May)
    27. ^Huang Z, Chen X, Chen DMyostatin: a novel insight into its role in metabolism, signal pathways, and expression regulationCell Signal.(2011 Sep)
    28. ^Hittel DS, Axelson M, Sarna N, Shearer J, Huffman KM, Kraus WEMyostatin decreases with aerobic exercise and associates with insulin resistanceMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2010 Nov)
    29. ^Tu P, Bhasin S, Hruz PW, Herbst KL, Castellani LW, Hua N, Hamilton JA, Guo WGenetic disruption of myostatin reduces the development of proatherogenic dyslipidemia and atherogenic lesions in Ldlr null miceDiabetes.(2009 Aug)
    30. ^Hill JJ, Davies MV, Pearson AA, Wang JH, Hewick RM, Wolfman NM, Qiu YThe myostatin propeptide and the follistatin-related gene are inhibitory binding proteins of myostatin in normal serumJ Biol Chem.(2002 Oct 25)
    31. ^Zhao B, Wall RJ, Yang JTransgenic expression of myostatin propeptide prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistanceBiochem Biophys Res Commun.(2005 Nov 11)
    32. ^Li Z, Zhao B, Kim YS, Hu CY, Yang JAdministration of a mutated myostatin propeptide to neonatal mice significantly enhances skeletal muscle growthMol Reprod Dev.(2010 Jan)
    33. ^Matsakas A, Foster K, Otto A, Macharia R, Elashry MI, Feist S, Graham I, Foster H, Yaworsky P, Walsh F, Dickson G, Patel KMolecular, cellular and physiological investigation of myostatin propeptide-mediated muscle growth in adult miceNeuromuscul Disord.(2009 Jul)
    34. ^Yang J, Zhao BPostnatal expression of myostatin propeptide cDNA maintained high muscle growth and normal adipose tissue mass in transgenic mice fed a high-fat dietMol Reprod Dev.(2006 Apr)
    35. ^Hamrick MW, Arounleut P, Kellum E, Cain M, Immel D, Liang LFRecombinant myostatin (GDF-8) propeptide enhances the repair and regeneration of both muscle and bone in a model of deep penetrant musculoskeletal injuryJ Trauma.(2010 Sep)
    36. ^Hu S, Chen C, Sheng J, Sun Y, Cao X, Qiao JEnhanced muscle growth by plasmid-mediated delivery of myostatin propeptideJ Biomed Biotechnol.(2010)
    37. ^Lee SJ, Lee YS, Zimmers TA, Soleimani A, Matzuk MM, Tsuchida K, Cohn RD, Barton ERRegulation of muscle mass by follistatin and activinsMol Endocrinol.(2010 Oct)
    38. ^Gilson H, Schakman O, Kalista S, Lause P, Tsuchida K, Thissen JPFollistatin induces muscle hypertrophy through satellite cell proliferation and inhibition of both myostatin and activinAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.(2009 Jul)
    39. ^Lee SJQuadrupling muscle mass in mice by targeting TGF-beta signaling pathwaysPLoS One.(2007 Aug 29)
    40. ^Nakatani M, Takehara Y, Sugino H, Matsumoto M, Hashimoto O, Hasegawa Y, Murakami T, Uezumi A, Takeda S, Noji S, Sunada Y, Tsuchida KTransgenic expression of a myostatin inhibitor derived from follistatin increases skeletal muscle mass and ameliorates dystrophic pathology in mdx miceFASEB J.(2008 Feb)
    41. ^Tsuchida KMyostatin inhibition by a follistatin-derived peptide ameliorates the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy model miceActa Myol.(2008 Jul)
    42. ^Miura T, Kishioka Y, Wakamatsu J, Hattori A, Hennebry A, Berry CJ, Sharma M, Kambadur R, Nishimura TDecorin binds myostatin and modulates its activity to muscle cellsBiochem Biophys Res Commun.(2006 Feb 10)
    43. ^Zhu J, Li Y, Shen W, Qiao C, Ambrosio F, Lavasani M, Nozaki M, Branca MF, Huard JRelationships between transforming growth factor-beta1, myostatin, and decorin: implications for skeletal muscle fibrosisJ Biol Chem.(2007 Aug 31)
    44. ^Li Y, Li J, Zhu J, Sun B, Branca M, Tang Y, Foster W, Xiao X, Huard JDecorin gene transfer promotes muscle cell differentiation and muscle regenerationMol Ther.(2007 Sep)
    45. ^Kishioka Y, Thomas M, Wakamatsu J, Hattori A, Sharma M, Kambadur R, Nishimura TDecorin enhances the proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells through suppressing myostatin activityJ Cell Physiol.(2008 Jun)
    46. ^Nishimura T, Oyama K, Kishioka Y, Wakamatsu J, Hattori ASpatiotemporal expression of decorin and myostatin during rat skeletal muscle developmentBiochem Biophys Res Commun.(2007 Oct 5)
    47. ^Morissette MR, Cook SA, Foo S, McKoy G, Ashida N, Novikov M, Scherrer-Crosbie M, Li L, Matsui T, Brooks G, Rosenzweig AMyostatin regulates cardiomyocyte growth through modulation of Akt signalingCirc Res.(2006 Jul 7)
    48. ^Morissette MR, Stricker JC, Rosenberg MA, Buranasombati C, Levitan EB, Mittleman MA, Rosenzweig AEffects of myostatin deletion in aging miceAging Cell.(2009 Sep)
    49. ^Kim JS, Cross JM, Bamman MMImpact of resistance loading on myostatin expression and cell cycle regulation in young and older men and womenAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.(2005 Jun)
    50. ^Walker KS, Kambadur R, Sharma M, Smith HKResistance training alters plasma myostatin but not IGF-1 in healthy menMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2004 May)
    51. ^Hulmi JJ, Tannerstedt J, Selänne H, Kainulainen H, Kovanen V, Mero AAResistance exercise with whey protein ingestion affects mTOR signaling pathway and myostatin in menJ Appl Physiol.(2009 May)
    52. ^Willoughby DSEffects of heavy resistance training on myostatin mRNA and protein expressionMed Sci Sports Exerc.(2004 Apr)
    53. ^Kim JS, Petrella JK, Cross JM, Bamman MMLoad-mediated downregulation of myostatin mRNA is not sufficient to promote myofiber hypertrophy in humans: a cluster analysisJ Appl Physiol.(2007 Nov)
    54. ^Heinemeier KMUsing ribosomal RNA as a reference in mRNA quantificationJ Appl Physiol.(2007 Nov)
    55. ^Kawada S, Tachi C, Ishii NContent and localization of myostatin in mouse skeletal muscles during aging, mechanical unloading and reloadingJ Muscle Res Cell Motil.(2001)
    56. ^Jespersen JG, Nedergaard A, Andersen LL, Schjerling P, Andersen JLMyostatin expression during human muscle hypertrophy and subsequent atrophy: increased myostatin with detrainingScand J Med Sci Sports.(2011 Apr)
    57. ^Sakuma K, Watanabe K, Hotta N, Koike T, Ishida K, Katayama K, Akima HThe adaptive responses in several mediators linked with hypertrophy and atrophy of skeletal muscle after lower limb unloading in humansActa Physiol (Oxf).(2009 Oct)
    58. ^Gustafsson T, Osterlund T, Flanagan JN, von Waldén F, Trappe TA, Linnehan RM, Tesch PAEffects of 3 days unloading on molecular regulators of muscle size in humansJ Appl Physiol.(2010 Sep)
    59. ^George Carlson C, Bruemmer K, Sesti J, Stefanski C, Curtis H, Ucran J, Lachey J, Seehra JSSoluble activin receptor type IIB increases forward pulling tension in the mdx mouseMuscle Nerve.(2011 May)
    60. ^Bamman MM, Petrella JK, Kim JS, Mayhew DL, Cross JMCluster analysis tests the importance of myogenic gene expression during myofiber hypertrophy in humansJ Appl Physiol.(2007 Jun)
    61. ^Garcia LA, King KK, Ferrini MG, Norris KC, Artaza JN1,25(OH)2vitamin D3 stimulates myogenic differentiation by inhibiting cell proliferation and modulating the expression of promyogenic growth factors and myostatin in C2C12 skeletal muscle cellsEndocrinology.(2011 Aug)
    62. ^Metabolic characteristics and body composition in house finches: effects of seasonal acclimatization
    63. ^Barre H, Geloen A, Chatonnet J, Dittmar A, Rouanet JLPotentiated muscular thermogenesis in cold-acclimated muscovy ducklingAm J Physiol.(1985 Nov)
    64. ^Ijiri D, Kanai Y, Hirabayashi MPossible roles of myostatin and PGC-1alpha in the increase of skeletal muscle and transformation of fiber type in cold-exposed chicks: expression of myostatin and PGC-1alpha in chicks exposed to coldDomest Anim Endocrinol.(2009 Jul)
    65. ^Cooper SJSeasonal metabolic acclimatization in mountain chickadees and juniper titmicePhysiol Biochem Zool.(2002 Jul-Aug)
    66. ^Dalbo VJ, Roberts MD, Sunderland KL, Poole CN, Stout JR, Beck TW, Bemben M, Kerksick CMAcute loading and aging effects on myostatin pathway biomarkers in human skeletal muscle after three sequential bouts of resistance exerciseJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci.(2011 Aug)

    Examine Database References

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    2. Creatine - Saremi A, Gharakhanloo R, Sharghi S, Gharaati MR, Larijani B, Omidfar KEffects of oral creatine and resistance training on serum myostatin and GASP-1Mol Cell Endocrinol.(2010 Apr 12)