Homocysteine is a biomarker of cardiovascular disease, and it is thought that higher circulating levels of homocysteine are indicative of a higher risk for cardiovascular incidents.


In Progress

This page on Homocysteine is currently marked as in-progress. We are still compiling research.

You can help contribute by:

Follow this Page for updates

Confused about Supplements?
Get the Stack Guides

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what what supplements affect Homocysteine
GradeLevel of Evidence
ARobust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
BMultiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
CSingle double blind study or multiple cohort studies
DUncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific ConsensusComments
Comparative Health Goals evidence only available to buyers of our Supplement-Goals Reference

All information is still available and viewable on their respective supplement page.
BVitamin B2
CFish Oil
CChlorogenic Acid
CS-Adenosyl Methionine
CGreen Coffee Extract
CVitamin B12
CRed Clover Extract
CVitamin E
CCocoa Extract


  1. Monahan KD, et al. Dose-dependent increases in flow-mediated dilation following acute cocoa ingestion in healthy older adults. J Appl Physiol. (2011)
  2. Tzounis X, et al. Prebiotic evaluation of cocoa-derived flavanols in healthy humans by using a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  3. Pase MP, et al. Cocoa polyphenols enhance positive mood states but not cognitive performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Psychopharmacol. (2013)
  4. Francis ST, et al. The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. (2006)
  5. Loffredo L1, et al. Dark chocolate acutely improves walking autonomy in patients with peripheral artery disease. J Am Heart Assoc. (2014)
  6. Hammer A1, et al. Dark chocolate and vascular function in patients with peripheral artery disease: A randomized, controlled cross-over trial. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. (2014)
  7. Carnevale R1, et al. Dark chocolate inhibits platelet isoprostanes via NOX2 down-regulation in smokers. J Thromb Haemost. (2012)
  8. Loffredo L1, et al. NOX2-mediated arterial dysfunction in smokers: acute effect of dark chocolate. Heart. (2011)
  9. Taub PR1, et al. Alterations in skeletal muscle indicators of mitochondrial structure and biogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure: effects of epicatechin rich cocoa. Clin Transl Sci. (2012)
  10. Vlachopoulos C1, et al. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals. Am J Hypertens. (2005)
  11. Engler MB1, et al. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. J Am Coll Nutr. (2004)
  12. Shiina Y, et al. Acute effect of oral flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake on coronary circulation, as compared with non-flavonoid white chocolate, by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in healthy adults. Int J Cardiol. (2009)
  13. Tokede OA1, Gaziano JM, Djoussé L. Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  14. Grassi D1, et al. Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  15. Muniyappa R1, et al. Cocoa consumption for 2 wk enhances insulin-mediated vasodilatation without improving blood pressure or insulin resistance in essential hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr. (2008)
  16. Grassi D1, et al. Cocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensives. Hypertension. (2005)
  17. Mogollon JA, et al. Chocolate flavanols and skin photoprotection: a parallel, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Nutr J. (2014)
  18. Grassi D1, et al. Blood pressure is reduced and insulin sensitivity increased in glucose-intolerant, hypertensive subjects after 15 days of consuming high-polyphenol dark chocolate. J Nutr. (2008)
  19. Balzer J1, et al. Sustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients a double-masked, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. (2008)
  20. Fraga CG1, et al. Regular consumption of a flavanol-rich chocolate can improve oxidant stress in young soccer players. Clin Dev Immunol. (2005)
  21. Davison K1, et al. Effect of cocoa flavanols and exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese subjects. Int J Obes (Lond). (2008)
  22. Wan Y1, et al. Effects of cocoa powder and dark chocolate on LDL oxidative susceptibility and prostaglandin concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. (2001)
  23. Crews WD Jr1, Harrison DW, Wright JW. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health: clinical findings from a sample of healthy, cognitively intact olde. Am J Clin Nutr. (2008)
  24. Zhu QY1, et al. Influence of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins on free radical-induced human erythrocyte hemolysis. Clin Dev Immunol. (2005)
  25. Almoosawi S1, et al. The effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on fasting capillary whole blood glucose, total cholesterol, blood pressure and glucocorticoids in healthy overweight and obese subjects. Br J Nutr. (2010)
  26. West SG1, et al. Effects of dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in overweight adults. Br J Nutr. (2014)
  27. Mogollon JA, et al. Blood pressure and endothelial function in healthy, pregnant women after acute and daily consumption of flavanol-rich chocolate: a pilot, randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. (2013)
  28. Caperton C1, et al. Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study Assessing the Effect of Chocolate Consumption in Subjects with a History of Acne Vulgaris. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. (2014)
  29. Wirtz PH1, et al. Dark chocolate intake buffers stress reactivity in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. (2014)
  30. Di Renzo L1, et al. Effects of dark chocolate in a population of normal weight obese women: a pilot study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. (2013)
  31. Terai N1, et al. The short-term effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on retinal vessel diameter in glaucoma patients and age-matched controls. Acta Ophthalmol. (2014)
  32. Esser D1, et al. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men. FASEB J. (2014)
  33. Pruijm M, et al. Effect of dark chocolate on renal tissue oxygenation as measured by BOLD-MRI in healthy volunteers. Clin Nephrol. (2013)
  34. Davison G1, et al. The effect of acute pre-exercise dark chocolate consumption on plasma antioxidant status, oxidative stress and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise. Eur J Nutr. (2012)
  35. Allgrove J1, et al. Regular dark chocolate consumption's reduction of oxidative stress and increase of free-fatty-acid mobilization in response to prolonged cycling. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2011)
  36. d'El-Rei J1, et al. Characterisation of hypertensive patients with improved endothelial function after dark chocolate consumption. Int J Hypertens. (2013)
  37. Nogueira Lde P1, et al. Consumption of high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function in individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight. Int J Hypertens. (2012)
  38. De Gottardi A1, et al. Postprandial effects of dark chocolate on portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis: results of a phase 2, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  39. Grassi D1, et al. Protective effects of flavanol-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function and wave reflection during acute hyperglycemia. Hypertension. (2012)
  40. Chan EK1, et al. Dark chocolate for children's blood pressure: randomised trial. Arch Dis Child. (2012)
  41. Sudarma V1, Sukmaniah S, Siregar P. Effect of dark chocolate on nitric oxide serum levels and blood pressure in prehypertension subjects. Acta Med Indones. (2011)
  42. Ried K1, Frank OR, Stocks NP. Dark chocolate or tomato extract for prehypertension: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. (2009)
  43. von Känel R, et al. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men. Thromb Haemost. (2014)
  44. Pearson DA1, et al. The effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function. Thromb Res. (2002)
  45. Hamed MS1, et al. Dark chocolate effect on platelet activity, C-reactive protein and lipid profile: a pilot study. South Med J. (2008)
  46. Ostertag LM1, et al. Flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and white chocolate improve acute measures of platelet function in a gender-specific way--a randomized-controlled human intervention trial. Mol Nutr Food Res. (2013)

(Users who contributed to this page include , , dbarvinok, GregoryLopez, Primalkid, BillWillis)