The ability to remember things currently being done (working memory) recently learned (short term) and possible for life (long term memory); some compounds enhance memory by reversing states of neural malaise (Fish Oil, Curcumin) whereas some can increase memory unilaterally (Bacopa monnieri).

This page features 20 unique references to scientific papers.

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The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (excluding animal/petri-dish studies) to tell you what supplements affect Memory
Grade Level of Evidence
A Robust research conducted with repeated double blind clinical trials
B Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
C Single double blind study or multiple cohort studies
D Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
Magnitude of Effect Size
Scientific Consensus Comments
A Ginkgo biloba
Comparative Health Goals evidence only available to buyers of our Supplement-Goals Reference

All information is still available and viewable on their respective supplement page.
B Bacopa monnieri
B Melissa officinalis
B Caffeine
C PRL-8-53
C Blueberry
C CDP-choline
C Fish Oil
C Ginger
C Melatonin
C Modafinil
C Nicotine
C Nigella sativa
C Oxiracetam
C Phosphatidylserine
C Piracetam
C Red Clover Extract
C S-Adenosyl Methionine
C Vinpocetine
C Black Cohosh
C Choline
C Chromium
C Cocoa Extract
C Creatine
C Marijuana
C Polygala tenuifolia
C Sceletium tortuosum
C Vitamin E
D Pramiracetam
D Peppermint


  1. A vitamin/nutriceutical formulation improves memory and cognitive performance in community-dwelling adults without dementia
  2. Efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation for moderate-stage to later-stage Alzheimer's disease: a placebo-controlled pilot study
  3. Efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation for early-stage Alzheimer's disease: a 1-year, open-label pilot study with an 16-month caregiver extension
  4. Medici V, et al S-adenosyl-L-methionine treatment for alcoholic liver disease: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial . Alcohol Clin Exp Res. (2011)
  5. Levkovitz Y, et al Effects of S-adenosylmethionine augmentation of serotonin-reuptake inhibitor antidepressants on cognitive symptoms of major depressive disorder . J Affect Disord. (2012)
  6. Feld JJ, et al S-adenosyl methionine improves early viral responses and interferon-stimulated gene induction in hepatitis C nonresponders . Gastroenterology. (2011)
  7. Papakostas GI, et al S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors for antidepressant nonresponders with major depressive disorder: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial . Am J Psychiatry. (2010)
  8. Kim J, et al Comparative clinical trial of S-adenosylmethionine versus nabumetone for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, Phase IV study in Korean patients . Clin Ther. (2009)
  9. Caruso I, Pietrogrande V Italian double-blind multicenter study comparing S-adenosylmethionine, naproxen, and placebo in the treatment of degenerative joint disease . Am J Med. (1987)
  10. Najm WI, et al S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) versus celecoxib for the treatment of osteoarthritis symptoms: a double-blind cross-over trial. ISRCTN36233495 . BMC Musculoskelet Disord. (2004)
  11. Soeken KL, et al Safety and efficacy of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) for osteoarthritis . J Fam Pract. (2002)
  12. Thompson MA, et al Dietary supplement S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) effects on plasma homocysteine levels in healthy human subjects: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial . J Altern Complement Med. (2009)
  13. Loehrer FM, et al Influence of oral S-adenosylmethionine on plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, S-adenosylhomocysteine, homocysteine and methionine in healthy humans . J Pharmacol Exp Ther. (1997)
  14. Gören JL, et al Bioavailability and lack of toxicity of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) in humans . Pharmacotherapy. (2004)
  15. Binder T, et al Randomized prospective comparative study of ursodeoxycholic acid and S-adenosyl-L-methionine in the treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy . J Perinat Med. (2006)
  16. Arnold O, et al Double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacodynamic studies with a nutraceutical and a pharmaceutical dose of ademetionine (SAMe) in elderly subjects, utilizing EEG mapping and psychometry . Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. (2005)
  17. Santini D, et al S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) supplementation for treatment of chemotherapy-induced liver injury . Anticancer Res. (2003)
  18. Jacobsen S, Danneskiold-Samsøe B, Andersen RB Oral S-adenosylmethionine in primary fibromyalgia. Double-blind clinical evaluation . Scand J Rheumatol. (1991)
  19. Di Rocco A, et al S-Adenosyl-Methionine improves depression in patients with Parkinson's disease in an open-label clinical trial . Mov Disord. (2000)
  20. Sarris J1, et al S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) versus escitalopram and placebo in major depression RCT: efficacy and effects of histamine and carnitine as moderators of response . J Affect Disord. (2014)

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