Rose Hip

Rose hip, the fruit of Rosa canina, is a dietary supplement for joint health. It can alleviate symptoms of arthritis if taken daily.

This page features 51 unique references to scientific papers.

Summary

All Essential Benefits/Effects/Facts & Information

Rose hip is a term used to refer to the extracts of rose plant fruit (of the Rosagenus), but it almost always refers specifically to Rosa canina, commonly known as the dog rose.

The fruits, and occasionally seeds, of dog rose are either ground up into a powder or made into tea, then supplemented to treat rheumatic diseases like osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It improves joint health by reducing pain and stiffness.

Preliminary evidence also suggests rose hip may provide benefits to people with diabetes, as well as high blood pressure and cholesterol. It’s hypothesized that rose hip may have an anti-obesity effect, but this claim needs to be confirmed through research.

Rose hip alleviates joint pain through its immunosuppressive effects. The immune system can contribute to rheumatic diseases. An inflammatory cytokine called Interleukin 1-Beta (IL-1β) causes cartilage cells to produce proteins that digest and break down join tissue. In moderation, this process encourages cell turnover, but in excess, this process contributes to long-term joint tissue degradation, which is what causes joint problems. While rose hip doesn’t reduce IL-1β levels in the blood, it interferes with its ability to activate catabolic proteins.

Rose hip is also able to reduce chemotaxis, which is the transportation of immune cells into tissue. This serves as both an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive mechanism.

Confused about supplements?

Free 5 day supplement course

Things To Know

Also Known As

Rosa canina, Dog Rose, Cynosbati fructus, Fructae cynosbati

Things to Note

  • As rose hip reduces chemotaxis, the antiinflammatory effects may also be seen as immunosuppressive. Prudency should be taken in persons with compromised immune systems, as no evidence has cleared rose hip for being medicinally benign in these persons

How to Take

Recommended dosage, active amounts, other details

The standard dose for rose hip is 5-10g a day, divided into two doses.

Rose hip powder is usually the preferred form of the supplement.

Rose hip should be taken with meals.

Doses as high as 40g have been used in studies. Aside from some intestinal distress, taking this much rose hip is not harmful.

Confused about supplements?

Free 5 day supplement course

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what effects rose hip has on your body, and how strong these effects are.

Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
Symptoms of Osteoarthritis Minor Very High See all 3 studies
There appears to be benefit to osteoarthritis symptoms with supplementation of rose hip relative to placebo, with benefits more apparent over longer periods of supplementation.
Blood Pressure Minor Very High See 2 studies
A mild (3.7%) decrease in systolic blood pressure has been noted in obese persons given supplementation of rose hip.
LDL-C Minor Very High See 2 studies
A mild reduction in LDL cholesterol levels seen in obese persons with rose hip supplementation explains the reduction in total cholesterol, as HDL-C appears to be unaffected.
Pain Minor Moderate See all 4 studies
Pain is reduced alongside improvements in osteoarthritic and rheumatoid arthritis, and at least one study (cohort) noted benefits in persons without these diseases yet with high labour jobs. No studies in athletes to assess the analgesic properties yet.
Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis Minor Very High See 2 studies
There appears to be mild benefits to joint symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis when rose hip is supplemented over the course of months, and these benefits may be seen at low (5g) dosages. Short term supplementation has not shown much benefit.
Total Cholesterol Minor Moderate See all 4 studies
A decrease in total cholesterol has been noted to a mild degree in obese persons, although a study in rheumatic patients without any abnormalities in cholesterol metabolism failed to find such an effect.
Weight Minor Low See 2 studies
Two human trials have found mixed results. One study in obese humans failed to find evidence for weight loss, whereas one study in overweight humans found some effect.
Adiponectin - Very High See study
No significant modifications in adiponectin concentrations when rose hip supplementation is given to humans.
Blood Glucose - Very High See 2 studies
Both fasting and postprandial glucose in persons given prolonged rose hip supplementation is not affected relative to placebo.
C-Reactive Protein - Moderate See all 5 studies
Preliminary studies showed marked reductions in C-reactive protein concentrations in healthy persons, although more recently conducted blinded studies have failed to replicate such a large decrease.
HDL-C - Very High See 2 studies
No significant alteration of HDL-C concentrations has been noted with limited evidence investigating rose hip supplementation.
HbA1c - Very High See study
No significant influence of rose hip on HbA1c concentrations in the blood of non-diabetic yet obese persons relative to placebo
Insulin - Very High See study
No significant influence on circulating (basal) insulin has been noted with rosehip supplementation.
Insulin Sensitivity - Very High See study
No significant influence on insulin sensitivity has been noted in obese humans relative to placebo.
Liver Enzymes - Very High See all 3 studies
No significant influence on the liver enzymes of otherwise healthy persons subject to rose hip supplementation
TNF-Alpha - Very High See study
At this point in time, there is no evidence to suggest modifications in the circulating levels of TNF-α relative to control.
Triglycerides - Very High See 2 studies
No significant influence of rose hip on triglyceride concentrations has been noted.
Chemotaxis Minor Very High See 2 studies
Chemotaxis of immune cells appears to be reduced with oral ingestion of rose hip supplements. This antiinflammatory/immunosuppressive mechanism is thought to underlie in part the benefits of rose hip against arthritic symptoms
Creatinine Minor Very High See study
Creatinine, a biomarker of kidney damage and muscle damage, has been noted to be reduced with rose hip supplementation in one preliminary trial
Skin Elasticity Minor Very High See study
One study found 3 g of oral rose hip powder improved cheek skin elasticity over 8 weeks.
Skin Moisture Minor Very High See study
3 g of oral rose hip powder over 8 weeks increased the moisture content of the skin of the forehead.
Wrinkles Minor Very High See study
3 g of oral rose hip powder decreased the depth of crow's feet wrinkles.
Anti-oxidant Enzyme Profile - Very High See study
Limited evidence has failed to find any significant changes in antioxidant enzyme profiles in the red blood cells of those given rose hip extract
Body Fat - Low See study

Scientific Research

Table of Contents:

  1. 1 Sources and Composition
    1. 1.1 Origin and Composition
  2. 2 Pharmacology
    1. 2.1 Known Drug Interactions
  3. 3 Cardiovascular Health
    1. 3.1 Blood Pressure
    2. 3.2 Cholesterol
  4. 4 Interactions with Glucose Metabolism
    1. 4.1 Blood Glucose
    2. 4.2 Glycation
  5. 5 Obesity and Fat Mass
    1. 5.1 Adipogenesis
    2. 5.2 Weight
  6. 6 Bone and Joint Health
    1. 6.1 Collagen and Joints
    2. 6.2 Osteoarthritis
    3. 6.3 Rheumatoid Arthritis
  7. 7 Inflammation and Immunology
    1. 7.1 Immunosuppression
  8. 8 Peripheral Organ Systems
    1. 8.1 Liver
  9. 9 Interactions with Aesthetics
    1. 9.1 Skin
  10. 10 Sexuality and Pregnancy
    1. 10.1 Libido
  11. 11 Safety and Toxicology
    1. 11.1 General

Don't Miss an Update!

Your e-mail is safe with us. We don’t share personal data.


1Sources and Composition

1.1. Origin and Composition

Rose hip is a term used to refer to the extracts produced from the fruits of rose plants (genus Rosa), with most dietary supplements being derived specifically from Rosa canina or the 'dog rose'.[1] The 'fruit' of the rose (Cynosbati fructus or fructus cynosbati[2]) is more correctly termed a pseudofruit or accessory fruit due to it not being the ovary of the plant, and the seeds within the fruit are usually discarded during processing of rose hip supplements.[1]

The overall 'rose hip' (accessory fruit) ranges in weight from 1.25-3.25g of which 71% is the usable pericarp[3] which contains around 75% water content[4] and a fatty acid content of 1.78%.[5] The fatty acid content is mostly α-linolenic acid at 40.5% of total fatty acids, followed by palmitic (16.4%) and linolenic (16%) acids with trace amounts of other monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids.[5]

The pericarp tends to be the part used medicinally for anti-rheumatic purposes; specifically, 2-5g of the accessory fruit is ground up and a water extraction (tea) is brewed to be drank up to four times daily.[1]

The rose hip differs from Rose Essential Oil which is derived from flowers and usually from other species of rose.

Rose hip is a term used to refer to extracts from the fruits of rose plants, usually Rosa canina. The water extracts have traditionally been used as a tea to treat rheumatic diseases such as arthritis, in addition to being used for the treatment of diabetes.

Rose hip (dried powder extract when components are quantified, unless otherwise specified) tends to contain:

  • Galactolipids, of which the major one is 1,2-di-O-α-linolenoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (DLGG, although GOPO is sometimes used synonymously[6]) at around 2.5mg per 10g of a powdered water extract[6]

  • Procyanidins,[7] with some reported to be larger than trimers and are glycosides[7] (procyanidins usually being aglycones)

  • trans-Tiliroside (Acetylated Kaempferol glycoside[8][9]) at more than 0.1% of the water extract[8]

  • Flavonoids including Apigenin, eriodictyol, Quercetin and various glycones including rutin, and phlorizin[7]

  • Triterpenoids including oleanolic acid, Ursolic Acid, and betulinic acid[10][11]

  • Tannins including Pedunculagin and methyl gallate rutinoside[7]

  • Vitamin C between 112.2mg/100g and 360.22mg/100g (0.12-0.36%) depending on biotype[2] with highest reported content being 1,300mg/100g (1.3%[12]) and lowest being 40-47mg/100g in the fresh pulp[13][14]

  • Carotenoids including neochrome, Lutein, zeaxanthin, rubixanthin, lycopene, and β,β-carotene[15]

  • Dietary minerals such as sodium (3.97-4.67mg/kg), potassium (up to 1.16% of the tea[16] and 0.89-1.02% of the dry fruit weight[4]), Calcium (18mg/kg or up to 0.6% of the tea[16]), Magnesium (1,909mg/kg), Iron (267mg/kg), Aluminum (157mg/kg), Manganese (244mg/kg), Zinc (22mg/kg), Copper (5mg/kg), Selenium (59mg/kg), Barium (47mg/kg), Nickel (2.9mg/kg), Chromium (900µg/kg), and Cobalt (400µg/kg)[17][4]

Despite being thought to be the active component, DLGG is prominent in a variety of food products although rosehip does not appear to be an abnormally high source relative to others.[18] Among citrus food products, rose hip pseudofruits appear to have relatively superior vitamin C content, which is thought to underlie some of the medicinal uses of the plant.[12] While the vitamin C content correlates positively with overall polyphenol content,[2] it should be noted that among rosa pseudofruit species that canina tends to have a lower average vitamin C content than other species such as villosa and drumosa,[19] with the polyphenol content also being lower in this species and relative to other medicinal herbs.[2]

The bioactives found in rose hip (beyond the macronutrient composition) are divided between polyphenolic compounds, triterpenoids such as ursolic acid, and the galactolipids such as GOPO. Although GOPO is usually credited with being the active ingredient, the other compounds may also contribute to the efficacy of this pseudofruit and no bioactive (except perhaps some of the procyanidin glycosides) seem to be unique to rose hip.


2Pharmacology

2.1. Known Drug Interactions

One study has noted that a fruit tea containing rose hip and Hibiscus sabdariffa (in a 60:40 ratio) showed a false positive on a digoxin assay, thought to be related to the individual flavonoids in the tea as this false positive was also noted with isolated delphinidin and Cyanidin as well as pure Quercetin.[20]

A case study has noted that a fruit tea which contains rose hip may show as a false positive on some digoxin assays, thought to be related to the anthocyanin content.


3Cardiovascular Health

3.1. Blood Pressure

In obese people given 40g of rose hip powder as a beverage daily for six weeks, supplementation of rose hip was associated with a 3.4% reduction in systolic blood pressure relative to placebo with no significant influence on diastolic blood pressure.[21]

A mild reduction in blood pressure has been noted with rose hip supplementation.

3.2. Cholesterol

Supplementation of 40g rose hip powder via a beverage for six weeks in obese people was noted to significantly reduce total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol by 4.9% and 6% respectively. When only considering individuals not on statin therapy, the magnitude slightly increased to 5.5% and 8.6%. No changes were observed in HDL-C in this study.[21]

A reduction in LDL cholesterol has been noted with supplementation of rose hip, although HDL cholesterol seems unaffected.


4Interactions with Glucose Metabolism

4.1. Blood Glucose

Supplementation of 40g rose hip daily for six weeks in obese persons failed to influence either fasting or postprandial glucose concentrations, with fasting insulin also unaffected.[21]

Rose hip supplementation does not seem to modify blood glucose concentrations either in the presence of food or without.

4.2. Glycation

In obese individuals, some of which were insulin resistant but none of which were diabetic, 40g of rose hip powder via a beverage (which contained sugars) daily for six weeks failed to influence biomarkers of glucose metabolism such as HbA1c relative to placebo drink.[21]

HbA1c has been noted to be unaffected by supplementation of rose hip extract.


5Obesity and Fat Mass

5.1. Adipogenesis

When tested in vitro, both rose hip extract (62.5-250μg/mL; estimated IC50 of 185.1μg/mL) and the flavonoid tilirioside (15.6-62.5μg/mL; estimated IC50 of 34.3μg/mL) attenuated lipid accumulation in adipose tissue in a concentration-dependent manner, although both were less potent than the control of 1μg/mL Berberine (chloride) which fully suppressed adipogenesis.[8]

When rose hip extract was added at 1% of a mouse diet for eight weeks in conjunction with a high-fat diet, there was a nonsignificant trend to reduce liver lipids (54.3%) and triglycerides (32.5%), and expression of PPARγ (a protein regulating fat cell proliferation and differentiation[22]) appeared to be reduced 33.8% relative to high-fat control, which may explain rose hip's ability to attenuate fat accumulation.[8]

Although the bioactive is unknown, it appears that rose hip supplementation may suppress levels of PPARγ which positively influences fat cell proliferation and differentiation. This is thought to underlie possible antiobese properties of rose hip.

5.2. Weight

Obese, diabetic mice on a high-fat diet along with 100mg/kg tiliroside, a compound in rose hip which is thought to reduce fat accumulation[23] (although it may not be the only active component[8]), failed to reduce body fat gain over three weeks despite having bioactivity in the liver.[23] Other studies in non-diabetic mice have found benefits with consumption of either the whole fruit or seed (but not pericarp only) extracts at up to 50mg/kg over two weeks[9] and ten weeks of 33% rose hip powder.[24]

One single-blind, placebo-controlled human trial in people whose BMI was between 25 and 30 for 12 weeks found that, in those taking 100 mg rose hip extract containing at least 0.1% of tiliroside, abdominal visceral fat area decreased by 9.23 cm2 (versus a 3.24 cm2 increase in the placebo group) and bodyweight decreased by 1.4 kg (versus a 0.26 kg decrease in those taking placebo). There was no change in average daily caloric intake between the two groups as measured by food diaries.[25] Another study using weight as a secondary measurement failed to find any weight loss effect in obese persons given 40g of rose hip daily over six weeks.[21]

Mouse evidence has shown an antiobese effect of rose hip when coingested with a diet designed to induce fat gain. The limited evidence in humans so far has had mixed results.


6Bone and Joint Health

6.1. Collagen and Joints

When testing galactolipids from rose hip in vitro in SW1353 (chondrosarcoma) and primary chondrocytes which are stimulated by IL-1β (an inflammatory cytokine known to promote degradation of these cartilage cells[26]), the presence of the galactolipid GLGPG (9.7µg/mL) attenuated the subsequent release of MMP1, 3, and 13 (proteins which cleave type-II collagen[27]) but was less effective than 250µg/mL of rose hip powder. There were some suppressive effects on ADAMTS-4 and 5 (which cleave proteoglycans[28]) although to a lesser degree.[29] LIF, another protein stimulated by IL-1β which is involved in the catabolism of cartilage during osteoarthritis,[30][31] was also reduced with coincubation of rose hip extract or GLGPG.[29]

The above actions are thought to be secondary to reducing the ability of IL-1β to stimulate NF-kB, which has been noted with rose hip in vitro (10μg/mL), and which also ablated the ability of IL-1β to reduce chondrocyte proliferation.[32]

Rose hip appears to be able to reduce the activity of various proteins involved in the breakdown of collagen in vitro by interfering with the actions of circulating cytokines (such as IL-1β) which activate these proteins. This interference is thought to stem from an inhibitory effect on NF-kB, which mediates the ability of IL-1β to induce the activity of the catabolic proteins.

One preliminary study with no control group noted that consumption of 10g of rose hip powder for four weeks in a small group of people with physical labour jobs was able to reduce subjective joint discomfort, the degree of which was not stated.[33] Another randomized study with a control group in people with self-reported problems walking due to knee problems (no etiology of these problems was used in the selection criteria) found that 2.25 g rose hip powder over 12 weeks improved improved gait analysis measurements as well as improved knee flexion during walking.[34]

Preliminary and limited evidence suggests that rose hip may improve joint discomfort and improve knee mobility during walking, although more research is needed.

6.2. Osteoarthritis

C-reactive protein has been noted to be reduced following ingestion of under 45g of rose hip powder over the course of a month in two preliminary studies in otherwise healthy people without signs of cardiovascular disease,[33][35] although a controlled trial using 10.5g of rose hip powder in both persons with rheumatoid arthritis and normal controls failed to find any benefit with supplementation,[36] and another study using 5g rose hip for six months only noted a nonsignificant trend to reduce C-reactive protein, although symptom relief was noted.[37]

Rose hip powder from Rosa canina at the dosage of 5,000mg in two divided daily doses for three months in people with knee or hip osteoarthritis noted benefits with supplementation, where overall WOMAC scores (a rating scale for joint symptoms[38]) declined 13% relative to no change seen in placebo, and 82% of people reported some benefit with rose hip (versus 49% with placebo).[39] This study noted more benefits seen after three months than three weeks (where only pain was reduced) and that paracetamol usage declined 40% when patients were supplementing with rose hip.[39] Benefits have been noted with rose hip elsewhere where supplementation of the same dose for four months resulted in self-reported improvements in pain in 64.6% of users (35.4% of placebo reporting such), although a whole-group benefit was not calcuated and pain was assessed on a 1-4 rating scale.[40] One other study using 5g a day has also noted time-dependent benefits, although in this case it was due to using rose hip supplementation for three months prior to a placebo therapy (due to the crossover design of the study), causing prolonged benefits during placebo administration.[41]

Rose hip supplementation at 2,500mg twice daily appears to provide mild benefits to osteoarthritis symptoms when compared to placebo based on preliminary evidence, and the benefits appear to be more significant with longer time of administration.

6.3. Rheumatoid Arthritis

A study using 10.5g of rose hip powder daily for one month failed to note any benefits to rheumatoid arthritis relative to baseline (no placebo group used) as assessed by HAQ and VAS scores for pain,[36] although elsewhere 5g of the extract has shown benefit to people with rheumatoid arthritis after six months in certain symptom scales but not others, but no benefit after three months.[37]

There may be some benefits with long-term rose hip ingestion in persons with rheumatoid arthritis that are not seen with short term usage, and this benefit may occur at lower doses of rose hip supplementation, although the evidence is mixed at this point in time.


7Inflammation and Immunology

7.1. Immunosuppression

The migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes is known to play a pathological role in forms of arthritis (both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid[42]) by promoting inflammatory and oxidative signalling, and rose hip (water extract) has been noted to reduce this migration at concentrations of 100µg/mL up to 500µg/mL.[33][35] This is thought to be related to the GOPO content, which has shown efficacy on its own in vitro.[6]

Oral supplementation of 10g of the powder in otherwise healthy men over one month has been noted to reduce chemotaxis by up to 50% relative to no treatment, with a higher dose (45g) showing slightly more efficacy (up to 65%),[33] Similar results have been noted elsewhere.[35]

Migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which are involved in the pathology of arthritic diseases, appears to be reduced with both in vitro application and oral ingestion of rose hip extracts.


8Peripheral Organ Systems

8.1. Liver

Components of rose hip extract may modulate PPAR proteins, as both tiliroside[8] and its aglycone Kaempferol[43] have been shown to suppress the activity of PPARγ secondary to activation of AMPK, since activation of this protein has not only been noted with tiliroside in vivo[23] but it also phosphorylates and inactivates PPARγ while reducing PPAR mRNA transcription.[44][45] Tiliroside has also been noted to activate PPARα,[23] which may increase the rate of fatty acid oxidation in the liver.

Oral ingestion of 1% rose hip extract given with a high-fat diet to mice over eight weeks has been noted to trend (nonsignificantly) to reduce hepatic accumulation of lipids (54.3%) and triglycerides (32.5%)[8] Elsewhere 100mg/kg of pure tiliroside to similar mice for three weeks significantly suppressed triglyceride accumulation by 34%, although it did not suppress body fat gain or alter metabolic rate (although the respitatory quotient, a biomarker of fatty acid consumption, was increased relative to control).[23]

It has been noted in mice that rose hip supplementation is able to reduce lipid and triglyceride accumulation in the liver, suggesting possible benefits to the development of fatty liver. There is currently no human evidence for this claim (which, at times, showed interspecies differences favoring benefits in mice relative to humans).


9Interactions with Aesthetics

9.1. Skin

One study with healthy nonsmoking men and women ages 35-65 found an improvement in crow's feet wrinkles, forehead skin moisture, and cheek skin elasticity when supplemented with 3 g oral rose hip powder daily.[46] The amount of improvement was similar to 4 mg astaxanthin, an antioxidant with some cosmetic benefits[47].


10Sexuality and Pregnancy

10.1. Libido

A dietary supplement containing rose hip (50mg; confounded with 200mg of both L-arginine and L-citrulline along with 20mg Pycnogenol) has been noted to improve sexual function of otherwise healthy women as assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) in a time-dependent manner over eight weeks. The 31% increase in the placebo group was outperformed by an 88% (four weeks) and 126% (eight weeks) improvement with supplementation.[48] This compound formulation has also shown efficacy in postmenopausal women (two entries for the same study,[49][50]) but due to the low dose of rose hip relative to a dose of pycnogenol known to be effective in isolation,[51] it is thought that rose hip is not the active component.

No good evidence at this time to suggest benefits of rose hip supplementation to libido and sexual well-being, as the only evidence available is confounded by known beneficial agents.


11Safety and Toxicology

11.1. General

Supplementation of up to 5,000mg rose hip powder daily for three months failed to have any significant side-effects relative to placebo in people with osteoarthritis.[39]

Gastrointestinal side-effects such as diarrhea, loose stools, and persistent constipation have occurred with ingestion of 40g rose hip extract via a beverage taken daily for six weeks.[21]

There do not appear to be any known side-effects associated with moderate rose hip supplementation, although higher doses appear to be associated with gastrointestinal side effects (diarrhea, loose stools, persistent constipation).

Scientific Support & Reference Citations

References

  1. Chrubasik C1, et al A systematic review on the Rosa canina effect and efficacy profiles . Phytother Res. (2008)
  2. Roman I1, Stănilă A, Stănilă S Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Rosa canina L. biotypes from spontaneous flora of Transylvania . Chem Cent J. (2013)
  3. Uggla M, Gao X, Werlemark G Variation Among and Within Dogrose Taxa ( Rosa sect. caninae ) in Fruit Weight, Percentages of Fruit Flesh and Dry Matter, and Vitamin C Content . Acta Agr Scand B-S P. (2003)
  4. Demir F, Özcan M Chemical and technological properties of rose (Rosa canina L.) fruits grown wild in Turkey . J Food Eng. (2001)
  5. Ercisli S Chemical composition of fruits in some rose (Rosa spp.) species . Food Chem. (2007)
  6. Larsen E, et al An antiinflammatory galactolipid from rose hip (Rosa canina) that inhibits chemotaxis of human peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro . J Nat Prod. (2003)
  7. Salminen JP1, et al Characterisation of proanthocyanidin aglycones and glycosides from rose hips by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and their rapid quantification together with vitamin C . J Chromatogr A. (2005)
  8. Nagatomo A1, et al Rosehip Extract Inhibits Lipid Accumulation in White Adipose Tissue by Suppressing the Expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma . Prev Nutr Food Sci. (2013)
  9. Ninomiya K1, et al Potent anti-obese principle from Rosa canina: structural requirements and mode of action of trans-tiliroside . Bioorg Med Chem Lett. (2007)
  10. Saaby L1, et al Isolation of immunomodulatory triterpene acids from a standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.) . Phytother Res. (2011)
  11. Saaby L1, Nielsen CH Triterpene acids from rose hip powder inhibit self-antigen- and LPS-induced cytokine production and CD4⁺ T-cell proliferation in human mononuclear cell cultures . Phytother Res. (2012)
  12. Ziegler SJ1, Meier B, Sticher O Fast and Selective Assay of l-Ascorbic Acid in Rose Hips by RP-HPLC Coupled with Electrochemical and/or Spectrophotometric Detection . Planta Med. (1986)
  13. Tayefi-Nasrabadi H1, Sadigh-Eteghad S, Aghdam Z The effects of the hydroalcohol extract of Rosa canina L. fruit on experimentally nephrolithiasic Wistar rats . Phytother Res. (2012)
  14. Türkben C, et al Effects of different maturity periods and processes on nutritional components of rose hip (Rosa canina L.) . J Food Agr Environ. (2010)
  15. Horváth G1, et al Carotenoid composition and in vitro pharmacological activity of rose hips . Acta Biochim Pol. (2012)
  16. Chen SS, Spiro M Rose-hip tea: equilibrium and kinetic study of mineral ion extraction . Food Chem. (1993)
  17. Başgel S1, Erdemoğlu SB Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey . Sci Total Environ. (2006)
  18. Larsen E, Christensen LP COMMON VEGETABLES AND FRUITS AS A SOURCE OF 1,2-DI-O-α-LINOLENOYL-3-O-β-D-GALACTOPYRANOSYL-sn-GLYCEROL, A POTENTIAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTITUMOR AGENT . J Food Lipids. (2007)
  19. Gao X, et al Evaluation of antioxidant activities of rosehip ethanol extracts in different test systems . J Sci Food Agr. (2000)
  20. Frész T1, et al The role of flavonoids in false positive digoxin assays caused by the consumption of hibiscus flower and rose hip tea . Int J Cardiol. (2014)
  21. Andersson U1, et al Effects of rose hip intake on risk markers of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over investigation in obese persons . Eur J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  22. Fajas L, Debril MD, Auwerx J Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma: from adipogenesis to carcinogenesis . J Mol Endocrinol. (2001)
  23. Goto T1, et al Tiliroside, a glycosidic flavonoid, ameliorates obesity-induced metabolic disorders via activation of adiponectin signaling followed by enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle in obese-diabetic mice . J Nutr Biochem. (2012)
  24. Andersson U1, et al Rose hip exerts antidiabetic effects via a mechanism involving downregulation of the hepatic lipogenic program . Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2011)
  25. Nagatomo A1, et al Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial . Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. (2015)
  26. Goldring SR1, Goldring MB The role of cytokines in cartilage matrix degeneration in osteoarthritis . Clin Orthop Relat Res. (2004)
  27. Reboul P1, et al The new collagenase, collagenase-3, is expressed and synthesized by human chondrocytes but not by synoviocytes. A role in osteoarthritis . J Clin Invest. (1996)
  28. Struglics A1, et al Human osteoarthritis synovial fluid and joint cartilage contain both aggrecanase- and matrix metalloproteinase-generated aggrecan fragments . Osteoarthritis Cartilage. (2006)
  29. Schwager J1, et al Rose hip and its constituent galactolipids confer cartilage protection by modulating cytokine, and chemokine expression . BMC Complement Altern Med. (2011)
  30. Lotz M1, Moats T, Villiger PM Leukemia inhibitory factor is expressed in cartilage and synovium and can contribute to the pathogenesis of arthritis . J Clin Invest. (1992)
  31. Alaaeddine N1, et al Differential effects of IL-8, LIF (pro-inflammatory) and IL-11 (anti-inflammatory) on TNF-alpha-induced PGE(2)release and on signalling pathways in human OA synovial fibroblasts . Cytokine. (1999)
  32. Shakibaei M1, et al Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes . Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2012)
  33. Winther K1, Rein E, Kharazmi A The anti-inflammatory properties of rose-hip . Inflammopharmacology. (1999)
  34. Ginnerup-Nielsen E1, et al Improved gait in persons with knee related mobility limitations by a rosehip food supplement: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial . Gait Posture. (2015)
  35. Kharazmi A, Winther K Rose hip inhibits chemotaxis and chemiluminescence of human peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro and reduces certain inflammatory parameters in vivo . Inflammopharmacology. (1999)
  36. Kirkeskov B, et al The effects of rose hip (Rosa canina) on plasma antioxidative activity and C-reactive protein in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and normal controls: a prospective cohort study . Phytomedicine. (2011)
  37. Willich SN, et al Rose hip herbal remedy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - a randomised controlled trial . Phytomedicine. (2010)
  38. Bellamy N, et al Validation study of WOMAC: a health status instrument for measuring clinically important patient relevant outcomes to antirheumatic drug therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee . J Rheumatol. (1988)
  39. Winther K, Apel K, Thamsborg G A powder made from seeds and shells of a rose-hip subspecies (Rosa canina) reduces symptoms of knee and hip osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial . Scand J Rheumatol. (2005)
  40. The Effects of a Standardized Herbal Remedy Made from a Subtype of Rosa canina in Patients with Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
  41. Rein E1, Kharazmi A, Winther K A herbal remedy, Hyben Vital (stand. powder of a subspecies of Rosa canina fruits), reduces pain and improves general wellbeing in patients with osteoarthritis--a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial . Phytomedicine. (2004)
  42. Dolganiuc A, et al The migratory and phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients . Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. (2000)
  43. Park UH1, et al Negative regulation of adipogenesis by kaempferol, a component of Rhizoma Polygonati falcatum in 3T3-L1 cells . Biol Pharm Bull. (2012)
  44. Witczak CA1, Sharoff CG, Goodyear LJ AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle: from structure and localization to its role as a master regulator of cellular metabolism . Cell Mol Life Sci. (2008)
  45. Habinowski SA1, Witters LA The effects of AICAR on adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells . Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (2001)
  46. Phetcharat L1, Wongsuphasawat K1, Winther K2 The effectiveness of a standardized rose hip powder, containing seeds and shells of Rosa canina, on cell longevity, skin wrinkles, moisture, and elasticity . Clin Interv Aging. (2015)
  47. Tominaga K, et al Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on humans subjects . Acta Biochim Pol. (2012)
  48. Bottari A1, et al Lady Prelox® improves sexual function in generally healthy women of reproductive age . Minerva Ginecol. (2013)
  49. Bottari A1, et al Lady Prelox® improves sexual function in post-menopausal women . Panminerva Med. (2012)
  50. Bottari A1, et al Lady Prelox® improves sexual function in post-menopausal women . Panminerva Med. (2012)
  51. Errichi S1, et al Supplementation with Pycnogenol® improves signs and symptoms of menopausal transition . Panminerva Med. (2011)