Summary of Weight Loss
Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts
Scientific Information on Weight Loss
Tired of all the misinformation spread by supplement companies?
Learn what works, what's a waste, and how to achieve your health goals with our free supplement mini-course.
Frequently Asked Questions about Weight Loss
Low-fat vs low-carb? Major study concludes: it doesn’t matter for weight loss
A year-long randomized clinical trial (DIETFITS) has found that a low-fat diet and a low-carb diet produced similar weight loss and improvements in metabolic health markers. Furthermore, insulin production and tested genes had no impact on predicting weight loss success or failure. Thus, evidence to date indicates you should choose your diet based on personal preferences, health goals, and sustainability.
Can hypothyroidism lead to fat gain?
Yes, a less active thyroid will reduce metabolic rate and can cause some weight gain. It is not a lot of weight gain though, and a subactive thyroid is not an excuse for obesity (if hypothyroidic, please see a doctor for medication; it burns fat)
Does aspartame increase appetite?
How do I stay out of "starvation mode?"
Marasmus is a disease of caloric restriction, but you most likely don't have it. Your metabolic rate can definitely slow down during weight loss, but it will never slow to the point where it causes you to gain weight; in this sense, starvation mode is a myth.
Measuring body fat percentage: It's an accuracy thing
Comparing DEXA versus Bod Pod for people with different BMI.
Is my “slow metabolism” stalling my weight loss?
Does eating at night make it more likely to gain weight?
While the evidence is mixed, depending on who was studied and what the diets were, there does not seem to be a major inherent weight-gain effect when eating late at night. Individual results may vary, and other factors such as circadian rhythms should be considered as well.
The lowdown on intermittent fasting
We analyze the research on intermittent fasting and how it impacts your health.
Does diet soda inhibit fat loss?
It does not inhibit fat loss at all, and may actually suppress appetite that could help fat loss (although it does not induce fat loss per se either). Diet soda, in regards to body fat, is a carbonated inert beverage
Do you need to detox?
While your body does accumulate toxicants, cleanses (detox diets) aren’t supported by toxicological mechanisms or trial evidence, and they can occasionally be dangerous. Your liver, lungs, kidneys, and other organs work nonstop to “detoxify” you; a diet rich in protein, vegetables, and fruits will provide them with the nutrients they need to function optimally.
How do I get a six-pack?
You eat less food to reduce body fat. There will be abdominal muscles under the fat, and adding some muscle to this area (resistance training) can make them appear more aesthetic; fat loss is the main predictor, however
Will my breasts shrink with weight loss?
How does protein affect weight loss?
What should you eat for weight loss?
When it comes to figuring out what to eat for weight loss, the most important factor is eating less. When you consume less calories than you spend you will lose weight and the diet that helps you lose weight best will be the one that allows you to consume less calories without causing much distress or lethargy. The key is to pick a diet that you can adhere to.
Will lifting weights convert my fat into muscle?
How do I lose fat around my belly?
Does high-protein intake help when dieting?
We analyze a study which suggests that a higher protein-intake while dieting can help you lose more fat.
Whey vs soy protein: which is better when losing weight?
Whey protein stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates more than soy protein, but supplementing with ~25 grams per day of either has similar effects on body composition over two weeks of dieting.
How important is sleep?
Sleep is incredibly important, and can be considered crucial alongside diet and exercise. Proper sleep habits help sustain many biological processes, and bad sleep can cause these processes to be suboptimal or even malfunction.
I have lost significant weight and now have loose skin. How can I tighten up my skin?
Is it really that bad to skip breakfast?
5 little-known facts about protein
Can you survive if you eat only protein? Can you survive without eating protein? How does your body keep functioning when you fast? Do high-protein diets actually promote weight loss, or do they only help you retain muscle when you eat below maintenance? Find the answers to those questions, and more, in the article below.
Human Effect Matrix
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect weight loss
|Grade||Level of Evidence [show legend]|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
|Minor||- See study|
- Gardner CD, et al. Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. (2018)
- Gardner CD, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA. (2007)
- Sacks FM, et al. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med. (2009)
- Pittas AG, et al. A low-glycemic load diet facilitates greater weight loss in overweight adults with high insulin secretion but not in overweight adults with low insulin secretion in the CALERIE Trial. Diabetes Care. (2005)
- Qi Q, et al. Insulin receptor substrate 1 gene variation modifies insulin resistance response to weight-loss diets in a 2-year randomized trial: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial. Circulation. (2011)
- Westman EC, et al. Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. (2007)
- Hall KD, Guo J. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition. Gastroenterology. (2017)
- Johnston BC, et al. Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA. (2014)
- Bueno NB, et al. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. (2013)
- McClain AD, et al. Adherence to a low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diet differs by insulin resistance status. Diabetes Obes Metab. (2013)
- Cornier MA, et al. Insulin sensitivity determines the effectiveness of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss in obese women. Obes Res. (2005)
- Jensen MD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation. (2014)
- Thyroid.org: Thyroid and Weight.
- Dale J, et al. Weight gain following treatment of hyperthyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (2001)
- Fox CS, et al. Relations of thyroid function to body weight: cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in a community-based sample. Arch Intern Med. (2008)
- Karmisholt J, Andersen S, Laurberg P. Weight loss after therapy of hypothyroidism is mainly caused by excretion of excess body water associated with myxoedema. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2011)
- Crocker MK, Kaplowitz P. Treatment of paediatric hyperthyroidism but not hypothyroidism has a significant effect on weight. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (2010)
- Storey ML, Forshee RA, Anderson PA. Beverage consumption in the US population. J Am Diet Assoc. (2006)
- Stellman SD, Garfinkel L. Artificial sweetener use and one-year weight change among women. Prev Med. (1986)
- Fowler SP, et al. Fueling the obesity epidemic? Artificially sweetened beverage use and long-term weight gain. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2008)
- Mattes RD, Popkin BM. Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
- Prevalence of overweight, obesity and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960-62 through 2005-2006.
- Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings.
- Colditz GA, et al. Patterns of weight change and their relation to diet in a cohort of healthy women. Am J Clin Nutr. (1990)
- Evaluation of the influence of intense sweeteners on the short-term control of appetite and caloric intake: a psychobiological approach.
- Rogers PJ, Blundell JE. Intense sweeteners and appetite. Am J Clin Nutr. (1993)
- Teff KL, Devine J, Engelman K. Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men. Physiol Behav. (1995)
- Hall WL, et al. Physiological mechanisms mediating aspartame-induced satiety. Physiol Behav. (2003)
- Horwitz DL, McLane M, Kobe P. Response to single dose of aspartame or saccharin by NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care. (1988)
- Okuno G, et al. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. (1986)
- Wolf-Novak LC, et al. Aspartame ingestion with and without carbohydrate in phenylketonuric and normal subjects: effect on plasma concentrations of amino acids, glucose, and insulin. Metabolism. (1990)
- Just T, et al. Cephalic phase insulin release in healthy humans after taste stimulation. Appetite. (2008)
- Oyama Y, et al. Carrier-mediated transport systems for glucose in mucosal cells of the human oral cavity. J Pharm Sci. (1999)
- Carlson HE, Shah JH. Aspartame and its constituent amino acids: effects on prolactin, cortisol, growth hormone, insulin, and glucose in normal humans. Am J Clin Nutr. (1989)
- Rogers PJ, Blundell JE. Reanalysis of the effects of phenylalanine, alanine, and aspartame on food intake in human subjects. Physiol Behav. (1994)
- Porikos KP, Booth G, Van Itallie TB. Effect of covert nutritive dilution on the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals: a pilot study. Am J Clin Nutr. (1977)
- Williams CL, Strobino BA, Brotanek J. Weight control among obese adolescents: a pilot study. Int J Food Sci Nutr. (2007)
- Knopp RH, Brandt K, Arky RA. Effects of aspartame in young persons during weight reduction. J Toxicol Environ Health. (1976)
- Ebbeling CB, et al. Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Pediatrics. (2006)
- Brown RJ, de Banate MA, Rother KI. Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth. Int J Pediatr Obes. (2010)
- Swithers SE, Davidson TL. A role for sweet taste: calorie predictive relations in energy regulation by rats. Behav Neurosci. (2008)
- Ambrus JL, et al. Effect of galactose and sugar substitutes on blood insulin levels in normal and obese individuals. J Med. (1976)
- Minnesota Starvation Experiment.
- Schwartz A, Doucet E. Relative changes in resting energy expenditure during weight loss: a systematic review. Obes Rev. (2010)
- Features of a successful therapeutic fast of 382 days' duration.
- Yan Y. Lam, Eric Ravussin. Analysis of energy metabolism in humans: A review of methodologies. Mol Metab. (2016)
- Müller MJ, et al. Advances in the understanding of specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues in humans. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2013)
- Donahoo WT, Levine JA, Melanson EL. Variability in energy expenditure and its components. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2004)
- Amatruda JM, Statt MC, Welle SL. Total and resting energy expenditure in obese women reduced to ideal body weight. J Clin Invest. (1993)
- Weinsier RL, et al. Metabolic predictors of obesity. Contribution of resting energy expenditure, thermic effect of food, and fuel utilization to four-year weight gain of post-obese and never-obese women. J Clin Invest. (1995)
- Astrup A, et al. Meta-analysis of resting metabolic rate in formerly obese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. (1999)
- Anja Bosy-Westphal, et al. Issues in characterizing resting energy expenditure in obesity and after weight loss. Front Physiol. (2013)
- ZiMian Wang, et al. Evaluation of Specific Metabolic Rates of Major Organs and Tissues: Comparison Between Men and Women. Am J Hum Biol. (2011)
- Landsberg L. Core temperature: a forgotten variable in energy expenditure and obesity?. Obes Rev. (2012)
- Rising R, et al. Racial difference in body core temperature between Pima Indian and Caucasian men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1995)
- de Jonge L, Bray GA. The thermic effect of food and obesity: a critical review. Obes Res. (1997)
- Tappy L. Thermic effect of food and sympathetic nervous system activity in humans. Reprod Nutr Dev. (1996)
- Levine JA. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2002)
- Garland T Jr, et al. The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity: human and rodent perspectives. J Exp Biol. (2011)
- Johannsen DL, Ravussin E. Spontaneous physical activity: relationship between fidgeting and body weight control. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. (2008)
- Ravussin E, et al. Determinants of 24-hour energy expenditure in man. Methods and results using a respiratory chamber. J Clin Invest. (1986)
- Snitker S, Tataranni PA, Ravussin E. Spontaneous physical activity in a respiratory chamber is correlated to habitual physical activity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2001)
- Astrup A, et al. Prediction of 24-h energy expenditure and its components from physical characteristics and body composition in normal-weight humans. Am J Clin Nutr. (1990)
- Phillips SM. The science of muscle hypertrophy: making dietary protein count. Proc Nutr Soc. (2011)
- Leidy HJ, Campbell WW. The effect of eating frequency on appetite control and food intake: brief synopsis of controlled feeding studies. J Nutr. (2011)
- Palmer MA, Capra S, Baines SK. Association between eating frequency, weight, and health. Nutr Rev. (2009)
- Taylor MA, Garrow JS. Compared with nibbling, neither gorging nor a morning fast affect short-term energy balance in obese patients in a chamber calorimeter. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2001)
- Bellisle F, McDevitt R, Prentice AM. Meal frequency and energy balance. Br J Nutr. (1997)
- Buckley JP, et al. Standing-based office work shows encouraging signs of attenuating post-prandial glycaemic excursion. Occup Environ Med. (2014)
- Trexler ET, Smith-Ryan AE, Norton LE. Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2014)
- Michael Rosenbaum, Rudolph L. Leibel. Adaptive thermogenesis in humans. Int J Obes (Lond). (2010)
- Nonino-Borges CB, et al. Influence of meal time on salivary circadian cortisol rhythms and weight loss in obese women. Nutrition. (2007)
- Sofer S, et al. Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2011)
- Jakubowicz D, et al. High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2013)
- James D. LeCheminant, et al. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study. British Journal of Nutrition. (2013)
- Keim NL, et al. Weight loss is greater with consumption of large morning meals and fat-free mass is preserved with large evening meals in women on a controlled weight reduction regimen. J Nutr. (1997)
- Goel N, et al. Circadian rhythm profiles in women with night eating syndrome. J Biol Rhythms. (2009)
- Patton DF, Mistlberger RE.. Circadian adaptations to meal timing: neuroendocrine mechanisms. Front Neurosci.. (2013)
- Mattson MP, Longo VD, Harvie M. Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes. Ageing Res Rev. (2016)
- Tinsley GM, La Bounty PM. Effects of intermittent fasting on body composition and clinical health markers in humans. Nutr Rev. (2015)
- Geliebter A, et al. Skipping breakfast leads to weight loss but also elevated cholesterol compared with consuming daily breakfasts of oat porridge or frosted cornflakes in overweight individuals: a randomised controlled trial. J Nutr Sci. (2014)
- Betts JA, et al. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2014)
- Ganesan K, Habboush Y, Sultan S. Intermittent Fasting: The Choice for a Healthier Lifestyle. Cureus. (2018)
- Speakman JR, Mitchell SE. Caloric restriction. Mol Aspects Med. (2011)
- Mercken EM, et al. Of mice and men: the benefits of caloric restriction, exercise, and mimetics. Ageing Res Rev. (2012)
- Longo VD, et al. Interventions to Slow Aging in Humans: Are We Ready?. Aging Cell. (2015)
- Hussin NM, et al. Efficacy of fasting and calorie restriction (FCR) on mood and depression among ageing men. J Nutr Health Aging. (2013)
- Horne BD, Muhlestein JB, Anderson JL. Health effects of intermittent fasting: hormesis or harm? A systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. (2015)
- Wei M, et al. Fasting-mimicking diet and markers/risk factors for aging, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Sci Transl Med. (2017)
- Jakubowicz D, et al. Fasting until noon triggers increased postprandial hyperglycemia and impaired insulin response after lunch and dinner in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care. (2015)
- Maersk M, et al. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr. (2011)
- Tate DF, et al. Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
- Wang YC, et al. Impact of change in sweetened caloric beverage consumption on energy intake among children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. (2009)
- Chen L, et al. Reduction in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight loss: the PREMIER trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
- Davidson TL, Swithers SE. A Pavlovian approach to the problem of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2004)
- Klein AV, Kiat H. Detox diets for toxin elimination and weight management: a critical review of the evidence. J Hum Nutr Diet. (2015)
- Makkapati S, D'Agati VD, Balsam L. "Green Smoothie Cleanse" Causing Acute Oxalate Nephropathy. Am J Kidney Dis. (2017)
- Kesavarapu K, et al. Yogi Detox Tea: A Potential Cause of Acute Liver Failure. Case Rep Gastrointest Med. (2017)
- Park GD, et al. Expanded role of charcoal therapy in the poisoned and overdosed patient. Arch Intern Med. (1986)
- Neuvonen PJ. Clinical pharmacokinetics of oral activated charcoal in acute intoxications. Clin Pharmacokinet. (1982)
- Kadakal C, et al. Effect of activated charcoal on water-soluble vitamin content of apple juice. Journal of Food Quality. (2007)
- Yaginuma-Sakurai K, et al. Hair-to-blood ratio and biological half-life of mercury: experimental study of methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in humans. J Toxicol Sci. (2012)
- Jackson E, et al. Adipose Tissue as a Site of Toxin Accumulation. Compr Physiol. (2017)
- La Merrill M, et al. Toxicological function of adipose tissue: focus on persistent organic pollutants. Environ Health Perspect. (2013)
- Lee YM, et al. Persistent organic pollutants in adipose tissue should be considered in obesity research. Obes Rev. (2017)
- Cheikh Rouhou M, et al. Adverse effects of weight loss: Are persistent organic pollutants a potential culprit?. Diabetes Metab. (2016)
- Kim MJ, et al. Fate and complex pathogenic effects of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls in obese subjects before and after drastic weight loss. Environ Health Perspect. (2011)
- Hue O, et al. Increased plasma levels of toxic pollutants accompanying weight loss induced by hypocaloric diet or by bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. (2006)
- Grant DM. Detoxification pathways in the liver. J Inherit Metab Dis. (1991)
- Keikotlhaile BM, Spanoghe P, Steurbaut W. Effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: a meta-analysis approach. Food Chem Toxicol. (2010)
- Liang Y, et al. Meta-analysis of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. (2014)
- Barański M, et al. Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses. Br J Nutr. (2014)
- Lu C, et al. Organic diets significantly lower children's dietary exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. Environ Health Perspect. (2006)
- Oates L, et al. Reduction in urinary organophosphate pesticide metabolites in adults after a week-long organic diet. Environ Res. (2014)
- Strosnider H, et al. Rural and Urban Differences in Air Quality, 2008-2012, and Community Drinking Water Quality, 2010-2015 - United States. MMWR Surveill Summ. (2017)
- McNall RE Jr. Practical methods of reducing airborne contaminants in interior spaces. Arch Environ Health. (1975)
- Pacitto A, et al. Effectiveness of commercial face masks to reduce personal PM exposure. Sci Total Environ. (2019)
- Cherrie JW, et al. Effectiveness of face masks used to protect Beijing residents against particulate air pollution. Occup Environ Med. (2018)
- Hodges RE, Minich DM. Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application. J Nutr Metab. (2015)
- Ferramosca A, Di Giacomo M, Zara V. Antioxidant dietary approach in treatment of fatty liver: New insights and updates. World J Gastroenterol. (2017)
- Kikuchi M, et al. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract improves hepatic abnormalities in male subjects. World J Gastroenterol. (2015)
- Yoshida K, et al. Broccoli sprout extract induces detoxification-related gene expression and attenuates acute liver injury. World J Gastroenterol. (2015)
- Yu J, et al. The Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Interplay between Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Genetic Background. Gastroenterol Res Pract. (2016)
- den Besten G, et al. The role of short-chain fatty acids in the interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and host energy metabolism. J Lipid Res. (2013)
- Sears ME, Kerr KJ, Bray RI. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in sweat: a systematic review. J Environ Public Health. (2012)
- Hussain J, Cohen M. Clinical Effects of Regular Dry Sauna Bathing: A Systematic Review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2018)
- Allen J, et al. Detoxification in naturopathic medicine: a survey. J Altern Complement Med. (2011)
- Kim JA, Kim JY, Kang SW. Effects of the Dietary Detoxification Program on Serum γ-glutamyltransferase, Anthropometric Data and Metabolic Biomarkers in Adults. J Lifestyle Med. (2016)
- Kim MJ, et al. Lemon detox diet reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and serum hs-CRP level without hematological changes in overweight Korean women. Nutr Res. (2015)
- Tinsley G, et al. A Purported Detoxification Supplement Does Not Improve Body Composition, Waist Circumference, Blood Markers, or Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Healthy Adult Females. J Diet Suppl. (2018)
- Nilsson LH. Liver glycogen content in man in the postabsorptive state. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. (1973)
- Fernández-Elías VE, et al. Relationship between muscle water and glycogen recovery after prolonged exercise in the heat in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2015)
- Kreitzman SN, Coxon AY, Szaz KF. Glycogen storage: illusions of easy weight loss, excessive weight regain, and distortions in estimates of body composition. Am J Clin Nutr. (1992)
- Vispute SS, et al. The effect of abdominal exercise on abdominal fat. J Strength Cond Res. (2011)
- Green JS, et al. The effects of exercise training on abdominal visceral fat, body composition, and indicators of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen replacement therapy: the HERITAGE family study. Metabolism. (2004)
- Evans EM, et al. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012)
- Bopp MJ, et al. Lean mass loss is associated with low protein intake during dietary-induced weight loss in postmenopausal women. J Am Diet Assoc. (2008)
- Mojtahedi MC, et al. The effects of a higher protein intake during energy restriction on changes in body composition and physical function in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. (2011)
- Gordon MM, et al. Effects of dietary protein on the composition of weight loss in post-menopausal women. J Nutr Health Aging. (2008)
- Treyzon L, et al. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass. Nutr J. (2008)
- Noakes M, et al. Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
- Clifton PM, Bastiaans K, Keogh JB. High protein diets decrease total and abdominal fat and improve CVD risk profile in overweight and obese men and women with elevated triacylglycerol. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2009)
- Josse AR, et al. Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women. J Nutr. (2011)
- Labayen I, et al. Effects of protein vs. carbohydrate-rich diets on fuel utilisation in obese women during weight loss. Forum Nutr. (2003)
- de Souza RJ, et al. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
- Loenneke JP, et al. Quality protein intake is inversely related with abdominal fat. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012)
- Loenneke JP, et al. Short report: Relationship between quality protein, lean mass and bone health. Ann Nutr Metab. (2010)
- Swinburn B, Sacks G, Ravussin E. Increased food energy supply is more than sufficient to explain the US epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
- Lack of evidence for high fructose corn syrup as the cause of the obesity epidemic.
- Leibel RL, et al. Energy intake required to maintain body weight is not affected by wide variation in diet composition. Am J Clin Nutr. (1992)
- Golay A, et al. Similar weight loss with low- or high-carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr. (1996)
- Golay A, et al. Weight-loss with low or high carbohydrate diet. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1996)
- Luscombe-Marsh ND, et al. Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
- Bray GA, et al. Effect of dietary protein content on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition during overeating: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (2012)
- Keogh JB, et al. Long-term weight maintenance and cardiovascular risk factors are not different following weight loss on carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein in obese hyperinsulinaemic men and women. Br J Nutr. (2007)
- Farnsworth E, et al. Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2003)
- Brinkworth GD, et al. Long-term effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2004)
- McLaughlin T, et al. Effects of moderate variations in macronutrient composition on weight loss and reduction in cardiovascular disease risk in obese, insulin-resistant adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
- Sargrad KR, et al. Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc. (2005)
- Boden G, et al. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med. (2005)
- Heilbronn LK, Noakes M, Clifton PM. Effect of energy restriction, weight loss, and diet composition on plasma lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. (1999)
- Parker B, et al. Effect of a high-protein, high-monounsaturated fat weight loss diet on glycemic control and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. (2002)
- Thomson RL, et al. The effect of a hypocaloric diet with and without exercise training on body composition, cardiometabolic risk profile, and reproductive function in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
- Strasser B, Spreitzer A, Haber P. Fat loss depends on energy deficit only, independently of the method for weight loss. Ann Nutr Metab. (2007)
- Astrup A, Meinert Larsen T, Harper A. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss. Lancet. (2004)
- Golay A, et al. Similar weight loss with low-energy food combining or balanced diets. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2000)
- Du M, Yin J, Zhu MJ. Cellular signaling pathways regulating the initial stage of adipogenesis and marbling of skeletal muscle. Meat Sci. (2010)
- Frayn KN. Fat as a fuel: emerging understanding of the adipose tissue-skeletal muscle axis. Acta Physiol (Oxf). (2010)
- GOLDNER F Jr. A review of the transamination reaction and its relationship to acute myocardial infarction. Am Pract Dig Treat. (1957)
- Hirotsu K, et al. Dual substrate recognition of aminotransferases. Chem Rec. (2005)
- Phillips SM, Hartman JW, Wilkinson SB. Dietary protein to support anabolism with resistance exercise in young men. J Am Coll Nutr. (2005)
- Wolfe RR. The underappreciated role of muscle in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
- Cordero-MacIntyre ZR, et al. Reproducibility of DXA in obese women. J Clin Densitom. (2002)
- Dangin M, et al. Influence of the protein digestion rate on protein turnover in young and elderly subjects. J Nutr. (2002)
- Boirie Y, et al. Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (1997)
- Mitchell CJ, et al. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men. PLoS One. (2014)
- Greenhaff PL, et al. Disassociation between the effects of amino acids and insulin on signaling, ubiquitin ligases, and protein turnover in human muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
- Jespersen JG, et al. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients. PLoS One. (2011)
- Yi S, et al. Short sleep duration in association with CT-scanned abdominal fat areas: the Hitachi Health Study. Int J Obes (Lond). (2012)
- Park SE, et al. The association between sleep duration and general and abdominal obesity in Koreans: data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001 and 2005. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2009)
- Hairston KG, et al. Sleep duration and five-year abdominal fat accumulation in a minority cohort: the IRAS family study. Sleep. (2010)
- Watson NF, et al. Sleep duration and body mass index in twins: a gene-environment interaction. Sleep. (2012)
- Di Milia L, Vandelanotte C, Duncan MJ. The association between short sleep and obesity after controlling for demographic, lifestyle, work and health related factors. Sleep Med. (2013)
- Nedeltcheva AV, et al. Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposity. Ann Intern Med. (2010)
- Benedict C, et al. Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances the Brain's Response to Hedonic Food Stimuli: An fMRI Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2012)
- St-Onge MP, et al. Sleep restriction leads to increased activation of brain regions sensitive to food stimuli. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
- Bosy-Westphal A, et al. Influence of partial sleep deprivation on energy balance and insulin sensitivity in healthy women. Obes Facts. (2008)
- Spiegel K, Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Impact of sleep debt on physiological rhythms. Rev Neurol (Paris). (2003)
- Lemola S, et al. Optimism and Self-Esteem Are Related to Sleep. Results from a Large Community-Based Sample. Int J Behav Med. (2012)
- Sio UN, Monaghan P, Ormerod T. Sleep on it, but only if it is difficult: Effects of sleep on problem solving. Mem Cognit. (2012)
- Knutson KL. Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2010)
- Choi JK, et al. Association between short sleep duration and high incidence of metabolic syndrome in midlife women. Tohoku J Exp Med. (2011)
- Najafian J, et al. Association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome in a population-based study: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. J Res Med Sci. (2011)
- Cappuccio FP, et al. Quantity and quality of sleep and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. (2010)
- Beihl DA, Liese AD, Haffner SM. Sleep duration as a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes in a multiethnic cohort. Ann Epidemiol. (2009)
- Chaput JP, et al. Sleep duration as a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance: analyses of the Quebec Family Study. Sleep Med. (2009)
- Chao CY, et al. Sleep duration is a potential risk factor for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. (2011)
- Broussard JL, et al. Impaired insulin signaling in human adipocytes after experimental sleep restriction: a randomized, crossover study. Ann Intern Med. (2012)
- Robertson MD, et al. Effects of three weeks of mild sleep restriction implemented in the home environment on multiple metabolic and endocrine markers in healthy young men. Metabolism. (2013)
- Impact of Five Nights of Sleep Restriction on Glucose Metabolism, Leptin and Testosterone in Young Adult Men.
- Buxton OM, et al. Sleep restriction for 1 week reduces insulin sensitivity in healthy men. Diabetes. (2010)
- Donga E, et al. A single night of partial sleep deprivation induces insulin resistance in multiple metabolic pathways in healthy subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2010)
- Penev PD. Association between sleep and morning testosterone levels in older men. Sleep. (2007)
- Luboshitzky R, Shen-Orr Z, Herer P. Middle-aged men secrete less testosterone at night than young healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2003)
- Randler C, et al. Chronotype but not sleep length is related to salivary testosterone in young adult men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. (2012)
- Validation of the full and reduced Composite Scale of Morningness.
- An actigraphic validation study of seven morningness-eveningness inventories.
- Roenneberg T, et al. A marker for the end of adolescence. Curr Biol. (2004)
- Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Effect of 1 week of sleep restriction on testosterone levels in young healthy men. JAMA. (2011)
- Cortés-Gallegos V, et al. Sleep deprivation reduces circulating androgens in healthy men. Arch Androl. (1983)
- González-Santos MR, et al. Sleep deprivation and adaptive hormonal responses of healthy men. Arch Androl. (1989)
- Cote KA, et al. Sleep deprivation lowers reactive aggression and testosterone in men. Biol Psychol. (2013)
- Leproult R, et al. Sleep loss results in an elevation of cortisol levels the next evening. Sleep. (1997)
- Backhaus J, Junghanns K, Hohagen F. Sleep disturbances are correlated with decreased morning awakening salivary cortisol. Psychoneuroendocrinology. (2004)
- Wu H, et al. Effects of sleep restriction periods on serum cortisol levels in healthy men. Brain Res Bull. (2008)
- Vgontzas AN, et al. Sleep deprivation effects on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and growth axes: potential clinical implications. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1999)
- Caine-Bish N, et al. The effect of cold exposure on the hormonal and metabolic responses to sleep deprivation. Wilderness Environ Med. (2005)
- Opstad PK, et al. The thyroid function in young men during prolonged exercise and the effect of energy and sleep deprivation. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1984)
- Sadamatsu M, et al. The 24-hour rhythms in plasma growth hormone, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone: effect of sleep deprivation. J Neuroendocrinol. (1995)
- Klingenberg L, et al. Sleep restriction is not associated with a positive energy balance in adolescent boys. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
- Koban M, Swinson KL. Chronic REM-sleep deprivation of rats elevates metabolic rate and increases UCP1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2005)
- Rechtschaffen A, Bergmann BM. Sleep deprivation in the rat: an update of the 1989 paper. Sleep. (2002)
- Takahashi Y, Kipnis DM, Daughaday WH. Growth hormone secretion during sleep. J Clin Invest. (1968)
- Sassin JF, et al. Human growth hormone release: relation to slow-wave sleep and sleep-walking cycles. Science. (1969)
- Gronfier C, et al. A quantitative evaluation of the relationships between growth hormone secretion and delta wave electroencephalographic activity during normal sleep and after enrichment in delta waves. Sleep. (1996)
- Van Cauter E, et al. A quantitative estimation of growth hormone secretion in normal man: reproducibility and relation to sleep and time of day. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1992)
- Obál F Jr, Krueger JM. The somatotropic axis and sleep. Rev Neurol (Paris). (2001)
- Saini J, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Effects on growth hormone, insulin and glucose profiles in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Horm Metab Res. (1993)
- Brandenberger G, Weibel L. The 24-h growth hormone rhythm in men: sleep and circadian influences questioned. J Sleep Res. (2004)
- Ho KY, et al. Effects of sex and age on the 24-hour profile of growth hormone secretion in man: importance of endogenous estradiol concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1987)
- Brandenberger G, et al. Effect of sleep deprivation on overall 24 h growth-hormone secretion. Lancet. (2000)
- Spiegel K, et al. Adaptation of the 24-h growth hormone profile to a state of sleep debt. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. (2000)
- Grossman R. The role of dimethylaminoethanol in cosmetic dermatology. Am J Clin Dermatol. (2005)
- Uhoda I, et al. Split face study on the cutaneous tensile effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) gel. Skin Res Technol. (2002)
- Tadini KA, Campos PM. In vivo skin effects of a dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) based formulation. Pharmazie. (2009)
- Szajewska H, Ruszczynski M. Systematic review demonstrating that breakfast consumption influences body weight outcomes in children and adolescents in Europe. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2010)
- Reeves S, et al. Experimental manipulation of breakfast in normal and overweight/obese participants is associated with changes to nutrient and energy intake consumption patterns. Physiol Behav. (2014)
- LeCheminant GM, et al. A randomized controlled trial to study the effects of breakfast on energy intake, physical activity, and body fat in women who are nonhabitual breakfast eaters. Appetite. (2017)
- Clayton DJ, James LJ. The effect of breakfast on appetite regulation, energy balance and exercise performance. Proc Nutr Soc. (2016)
- Moro T, et al. Effects of eight weeks of time-restricted feeding (16/8) on basal metabolism, maximal strength, body composition, inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors in resistance-trained males. J Transl Med. (2016)
- Farshchi HR, Taylor MA, Macdonald IA. Deleterious effects of omitting breakfast on insulin sensitivity and fasting lipid profiles in healthy lean women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
- Jequier E. Thermogenic responses induced by nutrients in man: their importance in energy balance regulation. Experientia Suppl. (1983)
- Sehgal SN, et al. Rapamycin (sirolimus, rapamune). Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. (1995)
- Westerterp KR. Diet induced thermogenesis. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2004)
- Veldhorst M, et al. Protein-induced satiety: effects and mechanisms of different proteins. Physiol Behav. (2008)
- Westerterp-Plantenga MS, et al. Sex differences in energy homeostatis following a diet relatively high in protein exchanged with carbohydrate, assessed in a respiration chamber in humans. Physiol Behav. (2009)
- Soenen S, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Proteins and satiety: implications for weight management. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2008)
- Austin J, Marks D. Hormonal regulators of appetite. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. (2009)
- D'Alessio D. Intestinal hormones and regulation of satiety: the case for CCK, GLP-1, PYY, and Apo A-IV. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. (2008)
- De Silva A, Bloom SR. Gut Hormones and Appetite Control: A Focus on PYY and GLP-1 as Therapeutic Targets in Obesity. Gut Liver. (2012)
- Schober G, et al. Contributions of upper gut hormones and motility to the energy intake-suppressant effects of intraduodenal nutrients in healthy, lean men - a pooled-data analysis. Physiol Rep. (2016)
- Westerterp-Plantenga MS, et al. Satiety related to 24 h diet-induced thermogenesis during high protein/carbohydrate vs high fat diets measured in a respiration chamber. Eur J Clin Nutr. (1999)
- Ravn AM, et al. Thermic effect of a meal and appetite in adults: an individual participant data meta-analysis of meal-test trials. Food Nutr Res. (2013)
- Mithieux G. A novel function of intestinal gluconeogenesis: central signaling in glucose and energy homeostasis. Nutrition. (2009)
- Mithieux G, Andreelli F, Magnan C. Intestinal gluconeogenesis: key signal of central control of energy and glucose homeostasis. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2009)
- Yánez AJ, et al. Broad expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase provide evidence for gluconeogenesis in human tissues other than liver and kidney. J Cell Physiol. (2003)
- Tome D. Protein, amino acids and the control of food intake. Br J Nutr. (2004)
- Tomé D, et al. Protein, amino acids, vagus nerve signaling, and the brain. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
- Journel M, et al. Brain responses to high-protein diets. Adv Nutr. (2012)
- Morrison CD, Laeger T. Protein-dependent regulation of feeding and metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab. (2015)
- Cota D, et al. Hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Science. (2006)
- Lacey JM, Wilmore DW. Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid?. Nutr Rev. (1990)
- Al Hafid N, Christodoulou J. Phenylketonuria: a review of current and future treatments. Transl Pediatr. (2015)
- van Vliet S, Burd NA, van Loon LJ. The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein Consumption. J Nutr. (2015)
- Stuart PS, Bell SJ, Molnar J. Use of tryptophan-fortified hydrolyzed collagen for nutritional support. J Diet Suppl. (2008)
- Tekeev AA. The importance of collagen in the biological value of meat. Gig Sanit. (1997)
- Gorshkov AI, et al. The relation of the biological value of meat proteins to their content of connective tissue. Vopr Pitan. (1990)
- Li P, Wu G. Roles of dietary glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline in collagen synthesis and animal growth. Amino Acids. (2018)
- Wu G. Dietary protein intake and human health. Food Funct. (2016)
- Biolo G, et al. Protein synthesis and breakdown in skin and muscle: a leg model of amino acid kinetics. Am J Physiol. (1994)
- Cahill GF Jr, Aoki TT. Starvation and body nitrogen. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. (1971)
- Cahill GF Jr. Fuel metabolism in starvation. Annu Rev Nutr. (2006)
- Owen OE, et al. Protein, fat, and carbohydrate requirements during starvation: anaplerosis and cataplerosis. Am J Clin Nutr. (1998)
- Dulloo AG, et al. How dieting makes the lean fatter: from a perspective of body composition autoregulation through adipostats and proteinstats awaiting discovery. Obes Rev. (2015)
- Dulloo AG, et al. Passive and active roles of fat-free mass in the control of energy intake and body composition regulation. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2017)
- Young VR, Marchini JS. Mechanisms and nutritional significance of metabolic responses to altered intakes of protein and amino acids, with reference to nutritional adaptation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. (1990)
- Owen OE. Ketone bodies as a fuel for the brain during starvation. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education. (2006)
- McLeod M, et al. Live strong and prosper: the importance of skeletal muscle strength for healthy ageing. Biogerontology. (2016)
- Cao L, Morley JE. Sarcopenia Is Recognized as an Independent Condition by an International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) Code. J Am Med Dir Assoc. (2016)
- Woo T, Yu S, Visvanathan R. Systematic Literature Review on the Relationship Between Biomarkers of Sarcopenia and Quality of Life in Older People. J Frailty Aging. (2016)
- Brown JC, Harhay MO, Harhay MN. Sarcopenia and mortality among a population-based sample of community-dwelling older adults. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. (2016)
- Volpi E, et al. Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2003)
- Spector AA, Kim HY. Discovery of essential fatty acids. J Lipid Res. (2015)
- Wene JD, Connor WE, DenBesten L. The development of essential fatty acid deficiency in healthy men fed fat-free diets intravenously and orally. J Clin Invest. (1975)
- Bistrian DR, et al. Effect of a protein-sparing diet and brief fast on nitrogen metabolism in mildly obese subjects. J Lab Clin Med. (1977)
- Bistrian BR. Clinical use of a protein-sparing modified fast. JAMA. (1978)
- Wadden TA, et al. A comparison of two very-low-calorie diets: protein-sparing-modified fast versus protein-formula-liquid diet. Am J Clin Nutr. (1985)
- Palgi A, et al. Multidisciplinary treatment of obesity with a protein-sparing modified fast: results in 668 outpatients. Am J Public Health. (1985)
- Zahouani A, Boulier A, Hespel JP. Short- and long-term evolution of body composition in 1389 obese outpatients following a very low calorie diet (Pro'gram18 VLCD). Acta Diabetol. (2003)
- Bakhach M, et al. The Protein-Sparing Modified Fast Diet: An Effective and Safe Approach to Induce Rapid Weight Loss in Severely Obese Adolescents. Glob Pediatr Health. (2016)