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Thermic effect of food (TEF)

Some of the calories in the food you eat are used to digest, absorb, metabolize, and store the remaining food, and some are burned off as heat. This process is called diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), specific dynamic action (SDA), or thermic effect of food (TEF).

Our evidence-based analysis on thermic effect of food (tef) features 23 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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  1. ^ Swaminathan R, et al. Thermic effect of feeding carbohydrate, fat, protein and mixed meal in lean and obese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. (1985)
  2. ^ Jequier E. Thermogenic responses induced by nutrients in man: their importance in energy balance regulation. Experientia Suppl. (1983)
  3. ^ de Jonge L, Bray GA. The thermic effect of food and obesity: a critical review. Obes Res. (1997)
  4. ^ M S Westerterp-Plantenga, et al. Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr. (2009)
  5. ^ Tappy L. Thermic effect of food and sympathetic nervous system activity in humans. Reprod Nutr Dev. (1996)
  6. ^ a b c Manuel Calcagno, et al. The Thermic Effect of Food: A Review. J Am Coll Nutr. (2019)
  7. ^ J L Kinabo, J V Durnin. Effect of meal frequency on the thermic effect of food in women. Eur J Clin Nutr. (1990)
  8. ^ Astrid J Smeets, Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga. Acute effects on metabolism and appetite profile of one meal difference in the lower range of meal frequency. Br J Nutr. (2008)
  9. ^ Verboeket-van de Venne WP, Westerterp KR. Influence of the feeding frequency on nutrient utilization in man: consequences for energy metabolism. Eur J Clin Nutr. (1991)
  10. ^ Christopher J Morris, et al. The Human Circadian System Has a Dominating Role in Causing the Morning/Evening Difference in Diet-Induced Thermogenesis. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2015)
  11. ^ S Bo, et al. Is the timing of caloric intake associated with variation in diet-induced thermogenesis and in the metabolic pattern? A randomized cross-over study. Int J Obes (Lond). (2015)
  12. ^ M Romon, et al. Circadian variation of diet-induced thermogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr. (1993)
  13. ^ a b Anne Raben, et al. Meals with similar energy densities but rich in protein, fat, carbohydrate, or alcohol have different effects on energy expenditure and substrate metabolism but not on appetite and energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr. (2003)
  14. ^ V L Bowden, R G McMurray. Effects of training status on the metabolic responses to high carbohydrate and high fat meals. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2000)
  15. ^ John P Thyfault, et al. Postprandial metabolism in resistance-trained versus sedentary males. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2004)
  16. ^ Narumi Nagai, Naoki Sakane, Toshio Moritani. Metabolic responses to high-fat or low-fat meals and association with sympathetic nervous system activity in healthy young men. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). (2005)
  17. ^ Neal D Barnard, et al. The effects of a low-fat, plant-based dietary intervention on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Am J Med. (2005)
  18. ^ Sadie B Barr, Jonathan C Wright. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure. Food Nutr Res. (2010)
  19. ^ Y Schutz, T Bessard, E Jéquier. Diet-induced thermogenesis measured over a whole day in obese and nonobese women. Am J Clin Nutr. (1984)
  20. ^ E T Poehlman, C L Melby, S F Badylak. Relation of age and physical exercise status on metabolic rate in younger and older healthy men. J Gerontol. (1991)
  21. ^ S Du, et al. The thermic effect of food is reduced in older adults. Horm Metab Res. (2014)
  22. ^ R S Schwartz, L F Jaeger, R C Veith. The thermic effect of feeding in older men: the importance of the sympathetic nervous system. Metabolism. (1990)
  23. ^ Pamela Parker Jones, et al. Role of sympathetic neural activation in age- and habitual exercise-related differences in the thermic effect of food. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2004)