Quick Navigation


Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength. It arises as a consequence of aging or is caused by factors like disease, physical inactivity, or inadequate nutrition. Resistance training and a high-protein diet are the primary treatments for sarcopenia.

Our evidence-based analysis on sarcopenia features 30 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
Last Updated:


  1. ^ a b c Alfonso J Cruz-Jentoft, et al. Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age Ageing. (2019)
  2. ^ a b Andrew D. Ardeljan, Razvan Hurezeanu. Sarcopenia.
  3. ^ Anton De Spiegeleer, et al. Pharmacological Interventions to Improve Muscle Mass, Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Older People: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses. Drugs Aging. (2018)
  4. ^ Clemens Becker, et al. Myostatin antibody (LY2495655) in older weak fallers: a proof-of-concept, randomised, phase 2 trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. (2015)
  5. ^ Daniel Rooks, et al. Treatment of Sarcopenia with Bimagrumab: Results from a Phase II, Randomized, Controlled, Proof-of-Concept Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. (2017)
  6. ^ a b c James McKendry, et al. Nutritional Supplements to Support Resistance Exercise in Countering the Sarcopenia of Aging. Nutrients. (2020)
  7. ^ Traylor DA, Gorissen SHM, Phillips SM. Perspective: Protein Requirements and Optimal Intakes in Aging: Are We Ready to Recommend More Than the Recommended Daily Allowance?. Adv Nutr. (2018)
  8. ^ Antoneta Granic, Avan A Sayer, Sian M Robinson. Dietary Patterns, Skeletal Muscle Health, and Sarcopenia in Older Adults. Nutrients. (2019)
  9. ^ S M Robinson, et al. Does nutrition play a role in the prevention and management of sarcopenia?. Clin Nutr. (2018)
  10. ^ D Beckwée, et al. Exercise Interventions for the Prevention and Treatment of Sarcopenia. A Systematic Umbrella Review. J Nutr Health Aging. (2019)
  11. ^ E Dent, et al. International Clinical Practice Guidelines for Sarcopenia (ICFSR): Screening, Diagnosis and Management. J Nutr Health Aging. (2018)
  12. ^ Roger A Fielding, et al. Sarcopenia: an undiagnosed condition in older adults. Current consensus definition: prevalence, etiology, and consequences. International working group on sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc. (2011)
  13. Thomas DR. Sarcopenia. Clin Geriatr Med. (2010)
  14. Sundell J. Resistance Training Is an Effective Tool against Metabolic and Frailty Syndromes. Adv Prev Med. (2011)
  15. Johnston AP, De Lisio M, Parise G. Resistance training, sarcopenia, and the mitochondrial theory of aging. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2008)
  16. Pillard F, et al. Physical activity and sarcopenia. Clin Geriatr Med. (2011)
  17. Bautmans I, Van Puyvelde K, Mets T. Sarcopenia and functional decline: pathophysiology, prevention and therapy. Acta Clin Belg. (2009)
  18. Kemmler W, et al. Exercise effects on bone mineral density, falls, coronary risk factors, and health care costs in older women: the randomized controlled senior fitness and prevention (SEFIP) study. Arch Intern Med. (2010)
  19. Taaffe DR, et al. High-impact exercise promotes bone gain in well-trained female athletes. J Bone Miner Res. (1997)
  20. Martyn-St James M, Carroll S. Effects of different impact exercise modalities on bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a meta-analysis. J Bone Miner Metab. (2010)
  21. Hourigan SR, et al. Positive effects of exercise on falls and fracture risk in osteopenic women. Osteoporos Int. (2008)
  22. Kronhed AC, Möller M. Effects of physical exercise on bone mass, balance skill and aerobic capacity in women and men with low bone mineral density, after one year of training--a prospective study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. (1998)
  23. Asikainen TM, Kukkonen-Harjula K, Miilunpalo S. Exercise for health for early postmenopausal women: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Sports Med. (2004)
  24. de Matos O, et al. Effect of specific exercise training on bone mineral density in women with postmenopausal osteopenia or osteoporosis. Gynecol Endocrinol. (2009)
  25. Yamazaki S, et al. Effect of walking exercise on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with osteopenia/osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Metab. (2004)
  26. Wilks DC, et al. Bone mass and geometry of the tibia and the radius of master sprinters, middle and long distance runners, race-walkers and sedentary control participants: a pQCT study. Bone. (2009)
  27. Kontulainen S, et al. Effect of long-term impact-loading on mass, size, and estimated strength of humerus and radius of female racquet-sports players: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography study between young and old starters and controls. J Bone Miner Res. (2003)
  28. Derman O, et al. Effect of swimming on bone metabolism in adolescents. Turk J Pediatr. (2008)
  29. Taaffe DR, et al. Differential effects of swimming versus weight-bearing activity on bone mineral status of eumenorrheic athletes. J Bone Miner Res. (1995)
  30. A Prospective Study of Weight Training and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Men.