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Sarcopenia is a muscle disorder. It is defined as an impairment of physical function (walking speed or grip strength) combined with a loss of muscle mass. It is the primary age-related cause of frailty.

Our evidence-based analysis on sarcopenia features 18 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by .
Reviewed by
Examine.com Team
Last Updated:


  1. Thomas DR. Sarcopenia. Clin Geriatr Med. (2010)
  2. Sundell J. Resistance Training Is an Effective Tool against Metabolic and Frailty Syndromes. Adv Prev Med. (2011)
  3. Johnston AP, De Lisio M, Parise G. Resistance training, sarcopenia, and the mitochondrial theory of aging. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2008)
  4. Pillard F, et al. Physical activity and sarcopenia. Clin Geriatr Med. (2011)
  5. Bautmans I, Van Puyvelde K, Mets T. Sarcopenia and functional decline: pathophysiology, prevention and therapy. Acta Clin Belg. (2009)
  6. Kemmler W, et al. Exercise effects on bone mineral density, falls, coronary risk factors, and health care costs in older women: the randomized controlled senior fitness and prevention (SEFIP) study. Arch Intern Med. (2010)
  7. Taaffe DR, et al. High-impact exercise promotes bone gain in well-trained female athletes. J Bone Miner Res. (1997)
  8. Martyn-St James M, Carroll S. Effects of different impact exercise modalities on bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a meta-analysis. J Bone Miner Metab. (2010)
  9. Hourigan SR, et al. Positive effects of exercise on falls and fracture risk in osteopenic women. Osteoporos Int. (2008)
  10. Kronhed AC, Möller M. Effects of physical exercise on bone mass, balance skill and aerobic capacity in women and men with low bone mineral density, after one year of training--a prospective study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. (1998)
  11. Asikainen TM, Kukkonen-Harjula K, Miilunpalo S. Exercise for health for early postmenopausal women: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Sports Med. (2004)
  12. de Matos O, et al. Effect of specific exercise training on bone mineral density in women with postmenopausal osteopenia or osteoporosis. Gynecol Endocrinol. (2009)
  13. Yamazaki S, et al. Effect of walking exercise on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with osteopenia/osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Metab. (2004)
  14. Wilks DC, et al. Bone mass and geometry of the tibia and the radius of master sprinters, middle and long distance runners, race-walkers and sedentary control participants: a pQCT study. Bone. (2009)
  15. Kontulainen S, et al. Effect of long-term impact-loading on mass, size, and estimated strength of humerus and radius of female racquet-sports players: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography study between young and old starters and controls. J Bone Miner Res. (2003)
  16. Derman O, et al. Effect of swimming on bone metabolism in adolescents. Turk J Pediatr. (2008)
  17. Taaffe DR, et al. Differential effects of swimming versus weight-bearing activity on bone mineral status of eumenorrheic athletes. J Bone Miner Res. (1995)
  18. A Prospective Study of Weight Training and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Men.