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Risk of Heart Failure

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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Summary of Risk of Heart Failure

Scientific Information on Risk of Heart Failure

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Human Effect Matrix

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The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies to tell you what supplements affect Risk of Heart Failure.

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Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Supplement Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-c Minor - See study
Supplementation of 400 IU vitamin E, despite not increasing overall cardiovascular mortality, increased the risk of heart failure in older persons with preexisting medical conditions (from 443 instances in placebo over seven years to 519 in supplemental).