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Rate of Sickness

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Summary of Rate of Sickness

Scientific Information on Rate of Sickness

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Human Effect Matrix

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The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies to tell you what supplements affect Rate of Sickness.

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Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Supplement Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-b Minor Very High See all 3 studies
Upper respiratory tract infections and cold symptoms seem to see a small to medium reduction when echinacea is used as a prophylactic. However, it's unclear which doses and demographics benefit more and which benefit less, and the inconsistency of studies suggests that only some people may see a benefit.
grade-b Minor Very High See all 15 studies
There is evidence for a modest reduction in the risk for respiratory tract infections in general, likely coming largely from upper respiratory tract infections, and more meaningful when vitamin D levels are very low (a small number of people). There is also some evidence for a modesty reduction in pneumonia and influenza, though more research is needed to be very confidence in this.
grade-b - Moderate See all 28 studies
When used as a prophylactic, vitamin C's effects are very inconsistent, and overall it doesn't seem to reliably reduce the risk of getting a common cold. It's possible that those undergoing extreme exercise (a known risk factor for developing colds) see a meaningful reduction in risk, however this is based on much less research and requires further study. It's unclear if other infectious diseases are affected by vitamin C supplementation.

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