Q: Are energy drinks bad for you?
A: Case studies have linked energy drinks to adverse effects, especially on the cardiovascular system, but the overall risk of something bad happening is low and context-dependent.
Read full answer to "Are energy drinks bad for you?"
Power Output is the ability to procure a large amount of strength in a rapid manner, and considered both muscular and neural factors. Supplements that increase power output are of interest to atheltes and strength enthusiasts.
Our evidence-based analysis features 36 unique references to scientific papers.
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Q: Are energy drinks bad for you?
The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect power output
|Grade||Level of Evidence|
|Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials|
|Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled|
|Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies|
|Uncontrolled or observational studies only|
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
All comparative evidence is now gathered in our A-to-Z Supplement Reference.
The evidence for each separate supplement is still freely available here.
|Branched Chain Amino Acids|
|Eurycoma Longifolia Jack|
Via HEM and FAQ:
- Wiggers D, et al. Use and Perceptions of Caffeinated Energy Drinks and Energy Shots in Canada . Am J Prev Med. (2017)
- Stephens MB, et al. Energy drink and energy shot use in the military . Nutr Rev. (2014)
- Malinauskas BM, et al. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students . Nutr J. (2007)
- Utter J, et al. Energy drink consumption among New Zealand adolescents: Associations with mental health, health risk behaviours and body size . J Paediatr Child Health. (2017)
- Hammond D, Reid JL. Exposure and perceptions of marketing for caffeinated energy drinks among young Canadians . Public Health Nutr. (2018)
- Emond JA, Sargent JD, Gilbert-Diamond D. Patterns of energy drink advertising over US television networks . J Nutr Educ Behav. (2015)
- Francis J, et al. Informing Intervention Strategies to Reduce Energy Drink Consumption in Young People: Findings From Qualitative Research . J Nutr Educ Behav. (2017)
- Hammond D, Reid JL, Zukowski S. Adverse effects of caffeinated energy drinks among youth and young adults in Canada: a Web-based survey . CMAJ Open. (2018)
- Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Cognitive and physiological effects of an "energy drink": an evaluation of the whole drink and of glucose, caffeine and herbal flavouring fractions . Psychopharmacology (Berl). (2004)
- Giles GE, et al. Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose . Pharmacol Biochem Behav. (2012)
- Temple JL, et al. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review . Front Psychiatry. (2017)
- Faber MS, Jetter A, Fuhr U. Assessment of CYP1A2 activity in clinical practice: why, how, and when? . Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. (2005)
- Rétey JV, et al. A genetic variation in the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) contributes to individual sensitivity to caffeine effects on sleep . Clin Pharmacol Ther. (2007)
- Alsene K, et al. Association between A2a receptor gene polymorphisms and caffeine-induced anxiety . Neuropsychopharmacology. (2003)
- Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review . Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
- Bray GA, Popkin BM. Dietary sugar and body weight: have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes?: health be damned! Pour on the sugar . Diabetes Care. (2014)
- Seifert SM, et al. An analysis of energy-drink toxicity in the National Poison Data System . Clin Toxicol (Phila). (2013)
- Miles-Chan JL, et al. The blood pressure-elevating effect of Red Bull energy drink is mimicked by caffeine but through different hemodynamic pathways . Physiol Rep. (2015)
- Grasser EK, et al. Energy Drinks and Their Impact on the Cardiovascular System: Potential Mechanisms . Adv Nutr. (2016)
- Di Rocco JR, et al. Atrial fibrillation in healthy adolescents after highly caffeinated beverage consumption: two case reports . J Med Case Rep. (2011)
- Shen J, et al. Dietary factors and incident atrial fibrillation: the Framingham Heart Study . Am J Clin Nutr. (2011)
- Hanan Israelit S, Strizevsky A, Raviv B. ST elevation myocardial infarction in a young patientafter ingestion of caffeinated energy drink and ecstasy . World J Emerg Med. (2012)
- Kaoukis A, et al. Reverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy associated with the consumption of an energy drink . Circulation. (2012)
- Rottlaender D, et al. Cardiac arrest due to long QT syndrome associated with excessive consumption of energy drinks . Int J Cardiol. (2012)
- Berger AJ, Alford K. Cardiac arrest in a young man following excess consumption of caffeinated "energy drinks" . Med J Aust. (2009)
- Benjo AM, et al. Left main coronary artery acute thrombosis related to energy drink intake . Circulation. (2012)
- Jonjev ZS, Bala G. High-energy drinks may provoke aortic dissection . Coll Antropol. (2013)
- Gaskins AJ, et al. Pre-pregnancy caffeine and caffeinated beverage intake and risk of spontaneous abortion . Eur J Nutr. (2016)
- Silva CG, et al. Adenosine receptor antagonists including caffeine alter fetal brain development in mice . Sci Transl Med. (2013)
- Knutti R, Rothweiler H, Schlatter C. The effect of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine . Arch Toxicol Suppl. (1982)
- Ruxton CH. The suitability of caffeinated drinks for children: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, observational studies and expert panel guidelines . J Hum Nutr Diet. (2014)
- Alford C, Cox H, Wescott R. The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood . Amino Acids. (2001)
- Howard MA, Marczinski CA. Acute effects of a glucose energy drink on behavioral control . Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. (2010)
- van den Eynde F, et al. The effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance . Tijdschr Psychiatr. (2008)
- Roehrs T, Roth T. Caffeine: sleep and daytime sleepiness . Sleep Med Rev. (2008)
- Souza DB, et al. Acute effects of caffeine-containing energy drinks on physical performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis . Eur J Nutr. (2017)
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"Power Output," Examine.com, published on 19 April 2013, last updated on 29 April 2017, https://examine.com/topics/power-output/