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Pain

Pain is the adverse sensation associated with injury, arthritis, and various forms of nerve injury that impairs well being and day-to-day living. Supplements may either universally reduce pain, or may alleviate the pain associated with a disease state.

Our evidence-based analysis on pain features 29 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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References

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  2. Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ. Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive. Environ Health Perspect. (1987)
  3. Kühn R, Graner H, Soukup P. {Experiences in the expert evaluation of nucleus pulposus prolapse}. Beitr Orthop Traumatol. (1975)
  4. Aspartame ingestion and headaches.
  5. Levy PS, Hedeker D, Sanders PG. Aspartame and headache. Neurology. (1995)
  6. Roberts HJ. Aspartame and headache. Neurology. (1995)
  7. Schiffman S. Aspartame and headache. Neurology. (1995)
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  9. Pisarik P, Kai D. Vestibulocochlear toxicity in a pair of siblings 15 years apart secondary to aspartame: two case reports. Cases J. (2009)
  10. Smith LL, et al. The effects of athletic massage on delayed onset muscle soreness, creatine kinase, and neutrophil count: a preliminary report. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. (1994)
  11. Hultman E, Spriet LL, Söderlund K. Biochemistry of muscle fatigue. Biomed Biochim Acta. (1986)
  12. Westerblad H, Allen DG, Lännergren J. Muscle fatigue: lactic acid or inorganic phosphate the major cause. News Physiol Sci. (2002)
  13. Cairns SP. Lactic acid and exercise performance : culprit or friend. Sports Med. (2006)
  14. Westerblad H, Allen DG. Recent advances in the understanding of skeletal muscle fatigue. Curr Opin Rheumatol. (2002)
  15. Cheung K, Hume P, Maxwell L. Delayed onset muscle soreness : treatment strategies and performance factors. Sports Med. (2003)
  16. Tokmakidis SP, et al. The effects of ibuprofen on delayed muscle soreness and muscular performance after eccentric exercise. J Strength Cond Res. (2003)
  17. Rahnama N, Rahmani-Nia F, Ebrahim K. The isolated and combined effects of selected physical activity and ibuprofen on delayed-onset muscle soreness. J Sports Sci. (2005)
  18. Zainuddin Z, et al. Light concentric exercise has a temporarily analgesic effect on delayed-onset muscle soreness, but no effect on recovery from eccentric exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2006)
  19. Aminian-Far A, et al. Whole-body vibration and the prevention and treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness. J Athl Train. (2011)
  20. Bakhtiary AH, Safavi-Farokhi Z, Aminian-Far A. Influence of vibration on delayed onset of muscle soreness following eccentric exercise. Br J Sports Med. (2007)
  21. Sellwood KL, et al. Ice-water immersion and delayed-onset muscle soreness: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. (2007)
  22. Paddon-Jones DJ, Quigley BM. Effect of cryotherapy on muscle soreness and strength following eccentric exercise. Int J Sports Med. (1997)
  23. Mendiguchia J, Brughelli M. A return-to-sport algorithm for acute hamstring injuries. Phys Ther Sport. (2011)
  24. Heiderscheit BC, et al. Hamstring strain injuries: recommendations for diagnosis, rehabilitation, and injury prevention. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. (2010)
  25. Kuenze C, Hart JM. Cryotherapy to treat persistent muscle weakness after joint injury. Phys Sportsmed. (2010)
  26. Hubbard TJ, Denegar CR. Does Cryotherapy Improve Outcomes With Soft Tissue Injury. J Athl Train. (2004)
  27. Zainuddin Z, et al. Effects of massage on delayed-onset muscle soreness, swelling, and recovery of muscle function. J Athl Train. (2005)
  28. Shimomura Y, et al. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation before squat exercise and delayed-onset muscle soreness. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2010)
  29. Herbert RD, de Noronha M, Kamper SJ. Stretching to prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2011)