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Overall Cancer Risk

Research analysis led by .
Reviewed by
Examine.com Team
Last Updated:

Summary of Overall Cancer Risk

Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts

Scientific Information on Overall Cancer Risk

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Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect overall cancer risk
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-d Notable Very High See 2 studies
Has been associated with over half the risk of all tested forms of cancer, possibly confounded with a healthy lifestyle in general (as the study in question did not exert many controls)