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Obesity is a condition of excessive body fat that increases the risk for other conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. Fat is how the body stores extra calories that were eaten but not used. Obesity treatment usually involves restricting the calories eaten or creating negative calorie balance

Our evidence-based analysis on obesity features 50 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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  1. ^ a b MedlinePlus (Internet) Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); (updated 2022 April 8).
  2. ^ a b c d Jensen MD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation. (2014)
  3. ^ Erica Bessell, et al. Efficacy of dietary supplements containing isolated organic compounds for weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials. Int J Obes (Lond). (2021)
  4. Thyroid.org: Thyroid and Weight.
  5. Dale J, et al. Weight gain following treatment of hyperthyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (2001)
  6. Fox CS, et al. Relations of thyroid function to body weight: cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in a community-based sample. Arch Intern Med. (2008)
  7. Karmisholt J, Andersen S, Laurberg P. Weight loss after therapy of hypothyroidism is mainly caused by excretion of excess body water associated with myxoedema. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2011)
  8. Crocker MK, Kaplowitz P. Treatment of paediatric hyperthyroidism but not hypothyroidism has a significant effect on weight. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (2010)
  9. Lim SS, et al. The effect of obesity on polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. (2012)
  10. Friedemann C, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk in healthy children and its association with body mass index: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. (2012)
  11. Wehrmeister FC, et al. Waist circumference and pulmonary function: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Rev. (2012)
  12. Juel CT, et al. Asthma and obesity: does weight loss improve asthma control? a systematic review. J Asthma Allergy. (2012)
  13. Adeniyi FB, Young T. Weight loss interventions for chronic asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2012)
  14. Wall H, Smith C, Hubbard R. BMI and obstructive sleep apnoea in the UK: a crosssectional study of the over-50s. Prim Care Respir J. (2012)
  15. Mongkolsomlit S, et al. Meta-regression of risk factors for microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. (2012)
  16. Cerimele JM, Katon WJ. Associations between health risk behaviors and symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. (2012)
  17. Qiu C. Preventing Alzheimer's disease by targeting vascular risk factors: hope and gap. J Alzheimers Dis. (2012)
  18. Turcksin R, et al. Maternal obesity and breastfeeding intention, initiation, intensity and duration: a systematic review. Matern Child Nutr. (2012)
  19. Thangaratinam S, et al. Interventions to reduce or prevent obesity in pregnant women: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess. (2012)
  20. Salihu HM, et al. Does maternal obesity cause preeclampsia? A systematic review of the evidence. Minerva Ginecol. (2012)
  21. Okabayashi K, et al. Body mass index category as a risk factor for colorectal adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. (2012)
  22. Zhang J, et al. Body mass index and suicidal behaviors: A critical review of epidemiological evidence. J Affect Disord. (2012)
  23. Arem H, Irwin ML. Obesity and endometrial cancer survival: a systematic review. Int J Obes (Lond). (2012)
  24. Parekh N, Chandran U, Bandera EV. Obesity in cancer survival. Annu Rev Nutr. (2012)
  25. Kanehisa H, et al. Body composition and isokinetic strength of professional Sumo wrestlers. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. (1998)
  26. Kanehisa H, et al. Characteristics of body composition and muscle strength in college Sumo wrestlers. Int J Sports Med. (1997)
  27. Nishizawa T, et al. Some factors related to obesity in the Japanese sumo wrestler. Am J Clin Nutr. (1976)
  28. Risk factors for mortality and mortality rate of sumo wrestlers.
  29. Selden MA, Helzberg JH, Waeckerle JF. Early cardiovascular mortality in professional football players: fact or fiction. Am J Med. (2009)
  30. Croft LB, et al. Comparison of National Football League linemen versus nonlinemen of left ventricular mass and left atrial size. Am J Cardiol. (2008)
  31. Miller MA, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in retired National Football League players. Am J Cardiol. (2008)
  32. Selden MA, et al. Elevated alanine aminotransferase in current national football league players: correlation with cardiometabolic syndrome markers, obesity, and insulin resistance. South Med J. (2009)
  33. Karam JH. Reversible insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Horm Metab Res. (1996)
  34. Leblanc V, et al. Impact of a Health-At-Every-Size intervention on changes in dietary intakes and eating patterns in premenopausal overweight women: results of a randomized trial. Clin Nutr. (2012)
  35. Bacon L, et al. Evaluating a 'non-diet' wellness intervention for improvement of metabolic fitness, psychological well-being and eating and activity behaviors. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2002)
  36. Provencher V, et al. Health-At-Every-Size and eating behaviors: 1-year follow-up results of a size acceptance intervention. J Am Diet Assoc. (2009)
  37. Bacon L, et al. Size acceptance and intuitive eating improve health for obese, female chronic dieters. J Am Diet Assoc. (2005)
  38. Jackson EG. Eating order: a 13-week trust model class for dieting casualties. J Nutr Educ Behav. (2008)
  39. Greaney ML, et al. Using focus groups to identify factors affecting healthful weight maintenance in Latino immigrants. J Nutr Educ Behav. (2012)
  40. Provencher V, et al. Short-term effects of a "health-at-every-size" approach on eating behaviors and appetite ratings. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2007)
  41. Carroll S, Borkoles E, Polman R. Short-term effects of a non-dieting lifestyle intervention program on weight management, fitness, metabolic risk, and psychological well-being in obese premenopausal females with the metabolic syndrome. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2007)
  42. [No authors listed. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. (1995)
  43. Measuring Adiposity in Patients: The Utility of Body Mass Index (BMI), Percent Body Fat, and Leptin.
  44. Okorodudu DO, et al. Diagnostic performance of body mass index to identify obesity as defined by body adiposity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Obes (Lond). (2010)
  45. Duncan JS, Duncan EK, Schofield G. Accuracy of body mass index (BMI) thresholds for predicting excess body fat in girls from five ethnicities. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  46. Laurson KR, Eisenmann JC, Welk GJ. Body Mass Index standards based on agreement with health-related body fat. Am J Prev Med. (2011)
  47. Accuracy of Body Mass Index to Diagnose Obesity In the US Adult Population.
  48. Kennedy AP, Shea JL, Sun G. Comparison of the classification of obesity by BMI vs. dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the Newfoundland population. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2009)
  49. Peltz G, et al. The role of fat mass index in determining obesity. Am J Hum Biol. (2010)
  50. Accuracy of current body mass index obesity classification for white, black and Hispanic reproductive-age women.