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Our evidence-based analysis on nutrition features 134 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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  1. Barzel US, Massey LK. Excess dietary protein can adversely affect bone. J Nutr. (1998)
  2. Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G. Comparison of high vs. normal/low protein diets on renal function in subjects without chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. (2014)
  3. Hunt JR, Johnson LK, Fariba Roughead ZK. Dietary protein and calcium interact to influence calcium retention: a controlled feeding study. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  4. Shams-White MM, et al. Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. Am J Clin Nutr. (2017)
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  9. Devries MC, et al. Changes in Kidney Function Do Not Differ between Healthy Adults Consuming Higher- Compared with Lower- or Normal-Protein Diets: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Nutr. (2018)
  10. Poortmans JR, Dellalieux O. Do regular high protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletes?. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2000)
  11. Holt SH, Miller JC, Petocz P. An insulin index of foods: the insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods. Am J Clin Nutr. (1997)
  12. Fleming P, Godwin M. Low-glycaemic index diets in the management of blood lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fam Pract. (2013)
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  14. Zhang R, et al. Effects of low-glycemic-index diets in pregnancy on maternal and newborn outcomes in pregnant women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Nutr. (2018)
  15. Evans CE, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. (2017)
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  17. Gardner CD, et al. Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. (2018)
  18. Milajerdi A, et al. The effect of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load on inflammatory biomarkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Am J Clin Nutr. (2018)
  19. Wang Q, et al. Effects comparison between low glycemic index diets and high glycemic index diets on HbA1c and fructosamine for patients with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Prim Care Diabetes. (2015)
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  21. Ojo O, et al. The Effect of Dietary Glycaemic Index on Glycaemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. (2018)
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  24. Hall KD, Guyenet SJ, Leibel RL. The Carbohydrate-Insulin Model of Obesity Is Difficult to Reconcile With Current Evidence. JAMA Intern Med. (2018)
  25. Hall KD. A review of the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2017)
  26. Hall KD, Guo J. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition. Gastroenterology. (2017)
  27. Johnston BC, et al. Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA. (2014)
  28. Bueno NB, et al. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. (2013)
  29. Sackner-Bernstein J, Kanter D, Kaul S. Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. (2015)
  30. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids.. The National Academies Press.. (2005)
  31. World Health Organization & Brouwer.. Effect of Trans-Fatty Acid Intake on Blood Lipids and Lipoproteins: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis..
  32. Gayet-Boyer C, et al. Is there a linear relationship between the dose of ruminant trans-fatty acids and cardiovascular risk markers in healthy subjects: results from a systematic review and meta-regression of randomised clinical trials. Br J Nutr. (2014)
  33. Wang Q, et al. Impact of Nonoptimal Intakes of Saturated, Polyunsaturated, and Trans Fat on Global Burdens of Coronary Heart Disease. J Am Heart Assoc. (2016)
  34. Allen BC, et al. Meta-regression analysis of the effect of trans fatty acids on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Food Chem Toxicol. (2016)
  35. Institute of Medicine. Final Determination Regarding Partially Hydrogenated Oils.. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety & Nutrition.. (2016)
  36. Vincent MJ, et al. Meta-regression analysis of the effects of dietary cholesterol intake on LDL and HDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr. (2019)
  37. Kim JE, Campbell WW. Dietary Cholesterol Contained in Whole Eggs Is Not Well Absorbed and Does Not Acutely Affect Plasma Total Cholesterol Concentration in Men and Women: Results from 2 Randomized Controlled Crossover Studies. Nutrients. (2018)
  38. Vorster HH, et al. Egg intake does not change plasma lipoprotein and coagulation profiles. Am J Clin Nutr. (1992)
  39. Chenoweth W, et al. Influence of dietary cholesterol and fat on serum lipids in men. J Nutr. (1981)
  40. Zhong VW, et al. Associations of Dietary Cholesterol or Egg Consumption With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality. JAMA. (2019)
  41. Shin JY, et al. Egg consumption in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. (2013)
  42. Ballesteros MN, et al. One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients. Nutrients. (2015)
  43. Fuller NR, et al. The effect of a high-egg diet on cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Egg (DIABEGG) study-a 3-mo randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2015)
  44. Rueda JM, Khosla P. Impact of breakfasts (with or without eggs) on body weight regulation and blood lipids in university students over a 14-week semester. Nutrients. (2013)
  45. Blesso CN, et al. Effects of carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol provided by eggs on clinical risk factors in metabolic syndrome. J Clin Lipidol. (2013)
  46. Blesso CN, et al. Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. (2013)
  47. Njike V, et al. Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults--effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk. Nutr J. (2010)
  48. Blesso CN, Fernandez ML. Dietary Cholesterol, Serum Lipids, and Heart Disease: Are Eggs Working for or Against You?. Nutrients. (2018)
  49. Herron KL, et al. Men classified as hypo- or hyperresponders to dietary cholesterol feeding exhibit differences in lipoprotein metabolism. J Nutr. (2003)
  50. Schoenfeld JD, Ioannidis JP. Is everything we eat associated with cancer? A systematic cookbook review. Am J Clin Nutr. (2013)
  51. Pham NM, et al. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: an evaluation based on a systematic review of epidemiologic evidence among the Japanese population. Jpn J Clin Oncol. (2014)
  52. Durko L, Malecka-Panas E. Lifestyle Modifications and Colorectal Cancer. Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep. (2014)
  53. Stamler J, et al. Relation of Dietary Sodium (Salt) to Blood Pressure and Its Possible Modulation by Other Dietary Factors: The INTERMAP Study. Hypertension. (2018)
  54. Soi V, Yee J. Sodium Homeostasis in Chronic Kidney Disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. (2017)
  55. Fiocco AJ, et al. Sodium intake and physical activity impact cognitive maintenance in older adults: the NuAge Study. Neurobiol Aging. (2012)
  56. Guo CP, et al. High salt induced hypertension leads to cognitive defect. Oncotarget. (2017)
  57. Webster JL, Dunford EK, Neal BC. A systematic survey of the sodium contents of processed foods. Am J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  58. Pilic L, Pedlar CR, Mavrommatis Y. Salt-sensitive hypertension: mechanisms and effects of dietary and other lifestyle factors. Nutr Rev. (2016)
  59. Mahtani KR, et al. Reduced Salt Intake for Heart Failure: A Systematic Review. JAMA Intern Med. (2018)
  60. Adler AJ, et al. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2014)
  61. O'Donnell MJ, et al. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events. JAMA. (2011)
  62. Elli L, et al. Evidence for the Presence of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity in Patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Results from a Multicenter Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Gluten Challenge. Nutrients. (2016)
  63. Shahbazkhani B, et al. Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Has Narrowed the Spectrum of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients. (2015)
  64. Carroccio A, et al. Non-celiac wheat sensitivity diagnosed by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge: exploring a new clinical entity. Am J Gastroenterol. (2012)
  65. Biesiekierski JR, et al. No effects of gluten in patients with self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity after dietary reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates. Gastroenterology. (2013)
  66. Gibson PR, Shepherd SJ. Food choice as a key management strategy for functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Am J Gastroenterol. (2012)
  67. Davis DR, Epp MD, Riordan HD. Changes in USDA food composition data for 43 garden crops, 1950 to 1999. J Am Coll Nutr. (2004)
  68. Loladze I. Hidden shift of the ionome of plants exposed to elevated CO₂depletes minerals at the base of human nutrition. Elife. (2014)
  69. Storka A, et al. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of liposomal curcumin in healthy humans. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. (2015)
  70. Gijsbers BL, Jie KS, Vermeer C. Effect of food composition on vitamin K absorption in human volunteers. Br J Nutr. (1996)
  71. Barbosa-Cánovas G, Altunakar B, Mejía-Lorio D. Chapter 1. Introduction to freezing. Freezing of fruits and Vegetables: An Agri-Business Alternative for Rural and Semi-Rural Areas. (2005)
  72. Li L, et al. Selected nutrient analyses of fresh, fresh-stored, and frozen fruits and vegetables. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. (2017)
  73. Lee CY, et al. Nitrate and nitrite nitrogen in fresh, stored and processed table beets and spinach from different levels of field nitrogen fertilisation. J Sci Food Agric. (1971)
  74. Yuan GF, et al. Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. (2009)
  75. Dinu M, et al. Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2017)
  76. Mihrshahi S, et al. Vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality: Evidence from a large population-based Australian cohort - the 45 and Up Study. Prev Med. (2017)
  77. Bedford JL, Barr SI. Diets and selected lifestyle practices of self-defined adult vegetarians from a population-based sample suggest they are more 'health conscious'. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. (2005)
  78. Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B 6, Folate, Vitamin B 12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline.
  79. Zempleni J, Wijeratne S, Kuroishi T. Biotin. _Present Knowledge in Nutrition_, 10th ed., Erdman JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH, editors, pp. 359–374. (2012)
  80. Evenepoel P, et al. Amount and fate of egg protein escaping assimilation in the small intestine of humans. Am J Physiol. (1999)
  81. Evenepoel P, et al. Digestibility of cooked and raw egg protein in humans as assessed by stable isotope techniques. J Nutr. (1998)
  82. Smith-Spangler C, et al. Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives?: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. (2012)
  83. Bradbury KE, et al. Organic food consumption and the incidence of cancer in a large prospective study of women in the United Kingdom. Br J Cancer. (2014)
  84. Barański M, et al. Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses. Br J Nutr. (2014)
  85. Bahlai CA, et al. Choosing organic pesticides over synthetic pesticides may not effectively mitigate environmental risk in soybeans. PLoS One. (2010)
  86. Vandenberg LN, et al. Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses. Endocr Rev. (2012)
  87. Keikotlhaile BM, Spanoghe P, Steurbaut W. Effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: a meta-analysis approach. Food Chem Toxicol. (2010)
  88. Liang Y, et al. Meta-analysis of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. (2014)
  89. Hodges RE, Minich DM. Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application. J Nutr Metab. (2015)
  90. Kieffer DA, Martin RJ, Adams SH. Impact of Dietary Fibers on Nutrient Management and Detoxification Organs: Gut, Liver, and Kidneys. Adv Nutr. (2016)
  91. Makkapati S, D'Agati VD, Balsam L. "Green Smoothie Cleanse" Causing Acute Oxalate Nephropathy. Am J Kidney Dis. (2017)
  92. Kesavarapu K, et al. Yogi Detox Tea: A Potential Cause of Acute Liver Failure. Case Rep Gastrointest Med. (2017)
  93. Kreitzman SN, Coxon AY, Szaz KF. Glycogen storage: illusions of easy weight loss, excessive weight regain, and distortions in estimates of body composition. Am J Clin Nutr. (1992)
  94. Ohkawara K, et al. Effects of increased meal frequency on fat oxidation and perceived hunger. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2013)
  95. Stote KS, et al. A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  96. Szajewska H, Ruszczynski M. Systematic review demonstrating that breakfast consumption influences body weight outcomes in children and adolescents in Europe. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2010)
  97. LeCheminant GM, et al. A randomized controlled trial to study the effects of breakfast on energy intake, physical activity, and body fat in women who are nonhabitual breakfast eaters. Appetite. (2017)
  98. Betts JA, et al. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2014)
  99. Jakubowicz D, et al. Fasting until noon triggers increased postprandial hyperglycemia and impaired insulin response after lunch and dinner in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care. (2015)
  100. Maki KC, Phillips-Eakley AK, Smith KN. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism. Adv Nutr. (2016)
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  102. LeCheminant JD, et al. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study. Br J Nutr. (2013)
  103. Schoenfeld BJ, Aragon AA, Krieger JW. The effect of protein timing on muscle strength and hypertrophy: a meta-analysis. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2013)
  104. Aragon AA, Schoenfeld BJ. Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2013)
  105. van der Merwe J, Brooks NE, Myburgh KH. Three weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation affects dihydrotestosterone to testosterone ratio in college-aged rugby players. Clin J Sport Med. (2009)
  106. Vatani DS, et al. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Performance and Hormonal Response in Amateur Swimmers. Science and Sports. (2011)
  107. Arazi H, et al. Effects of short term creatine supplementation and resistance exercises on resting hormonal and cardiovascular responses. Science and Sports. (2015)
  108. Cooke MB, et al. Creatine supplementation post-exercise does not enhance training-induced adaptations in middle to older aged males. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2014)
  109. Cook CJ, et al. Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation - a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2011)
  110. Crowe MJ, O'Connor DM, Lukins JE. The effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB/creatine supplementation on indices of health in highly trained athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2003)
  111. Hoffman J, et al. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2006)
  112. Eijnde BO, Hespel P. Short-term creatine supplementation does not alter the hormonal response to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2001)
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  117. Tyka AK, et al. Effect of creatine malate supplementation on physical performance, body composition and selected hormone levels in spinters and long-distance runners. Acta Physiol Hung. (2015)
  118. Hamada K, Randall VA. Inhibitory autocrine factors produced by the mesenchyme-derived hair follicle dermal papilla may be a key to male pattern baldness. Br J Dermatol. (2006)
  119. Trüeb RM. Molecular mechanisms of androgenetic alopecia. Exp Gerontol. (2002)
  120. Williamson L, New D. How the use of creatine supplements can elevate serum creatinine in the absence of underlying kidney pathology. BMJ Case Rep. (2014)
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  123. Farquhar WB, Zambraski EJ. Effects of creatine use on the athlete's kidney. Curr Sports Med Rep. (2002)
  124. Pline KA, Smith CL. The effect of creatine intake on renal function. Ann Pharmacother. (2005)
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  129. Kreider RB, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2017)
  130. Gualano B, et al. Effect of short-term high-dose creatine supplementation on measured GFR in a young man with a single kidney. Am J Kidney Dis. (2010)
  131. Gualano B, et al. Creatine supplementation does not impair kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2011)
  132. Taes YE, et al. Creatine supplementation does not decrease total plasma homocysteine in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. (2004)
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  134. Sacks FM, et al. Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association. Circulation. (2017)