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Muscle Creatine Content

“Muscle creatine content” refers the amount of creatine (phosphocreatine included) stored in muscle tissues. This content can be increased by some supplements, notably oral creatine.

Research analysis led by Kamal Patel .
Reviewed by
Examine.com Team
Last Updated:

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Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect muscle creatine content.
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Supplement Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-a Strong Very High See all 18 studies
Creatine supplementation is the reference compound for increasing muscular creatine levels; there is variability in this increase, however, with some nonresponders.
grade-c - - See study
Betaine (2g) has failed to increase phosphocreatine levels in skeletal muscle and failed to augment the increase caused by 20g of creatine.
grade-d Minor - See study
Has been associated with augmenting creatine uptake into muscle cells acutely; long term influence unknown