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Libido

Libido, or sex drive, refers to the spontaneity, frequency, and magnitude of sexual desire. It’s affected by hormones and neurotransmitters (their dysfunction, as in depression, can suppress libido).

Our evidence-based analysis on libido features 39 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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References

  1. Gonzales GF, et al. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andrologia. (2002)
  2. Zenico T, et al. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Andrologia. (2009)
  3. Gonzales GF, et al. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men. J Endocrinol. (2003)
  4. Gonzales-Arimborgo C, et al. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). (2016)
  5. Brooks NA, et al. Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content. Menopause. (2008)
  6. Petrone A, Gaziano J, Djoussé L. Effects of Dark Chocolate and Cocoa Products on Endothelial Function: A Meta-Analysis. Curr Nutr Rep. (2003)
  7. Adeniyi AA, et al. Yohimbine in the treatment of orgasmic dysfunction. Asian J Androl. (2007)
  8. Guay AT, et al. Yohimbine treatment of organic erectile dysfunction in a dose-escalation trial. Int J Impot Res. (2002)
  9. Gilbert DG, Hagen RL, D'Agostino JA. The effects of cigarette smoking on human sexual potency. Addict Behav. (1986)
  10. Harte CB, Meston CM. Acute effects of nicotine on physiological and subjective sexual arousal in nonsmoking men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Sex Med. (2008)
  11. Harte CB, Meston CM. The inhibitory effects of nicotine on physiological sexual arousal in nonsmoking women: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. J Sex Med. (2008)
  12. McLeod AL, McKenna CJ, Northridge DB. Myocardial infarction following the combined recreational use of Viagra and cannabis. Clin Cardiol. (2002)
  13. Cui T, et al. A Urologist's Guide to Ingredients Found in Top-Selling Nutraceuticals for Men's Sexual Health. J Sex Med. (2015)
  14. Basson R, et al. Revised definitions of women's sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med. (2004)
  15. Salonia A, et al. Physiology of women's sexual function: basic knowledge and new findings. J Sex Med. (2010)
  16. Pfaus JG. Pathways of sexual desire. J Sex Med. (2009)
  17. Traish AM, et al. Androgens in female genital sexual arousal function: a biochemical perspective. J Sex Marital Ther. (2002)
  18. Kingsberg SA, Simon JA, Goldstein I. The current outlook for testosterone in the management of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women. J Sex Med. (2008)
  19. Riley AJ. Life-long absence of sexual drive in a woman associated with 5-dihydrotestosterone deficiency. J Sex Marital Ther. (1999)
  20. Levine KB, Williams RE, Hartmann KE. Vulvovaginal atrophy is strongly associated with female sexual dysfunction among sexually active postmenopausal women. Menopause. (2008)
  21. Genazzani AR, et al. The European Menopause Survey 2005: women's perceptions on the menopause and postmenopausal hormone therapy. Gynecol Endocrinol. (2006)
  22. Maclaran K, Panay N. Managing low sexual desire in women. Womens Health (Lond). (2011)
  23. Berglund H, Lindström P, Savic I. Brain response to putative pheromones in lesbian women. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2006)
  24. Savic I, et al. Smelling of odorous sex hormone-like compounds causes sex-differentiated hypothalamic activations in humans. Neuron. (2001)
  25. Miller SL, Maner JK. Scent of a woman: men's testosterone responses to olfactory ovulation cues. Psychol Sci. (2010)
  26. Rupp HA, Wallen K. Sex-specific content preferences for visual sexual stimuli. Arch Sex Behav. (2009)
  27. Polan ML, et al. Female sexual arousal: a behavioral analysis. Fertil Steril. (2003)
  28. Tsujimura A, et al. Sex differences in visual attention to sexually explicit videos: a preliminary study. J Sex Med. (2009)
  29. Park K, et al. Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating cerebral regions of female sexual arousal response. Urology. (2001)
  30. Brody S. The relative health benefits of different sexual activities. J Sex Med. (2010)
  31. Brody S, Weiss P. Simultaneous penile-vaginal intercourse orgasm is associated with satisfaction (sexual, life, partnership, and mental health). J Sex Med. (2011)
  32. Brody S, Costa RM. Satisfaction (sexual, life, relationship, and mental health) is associated directly with penile-vaginal intercourse, but inversely with other sexual behavior frequencies. J Sex Med. (2009)
  33. Meston CM, et al. Disorders of orgasm in women. J Sex Med. (2004)
  34. Hull EM, et al. Hormone-neurotransmitter interactions in the control of sexual behavior. Behav Brain Res. (1999)
  35. Meston CM, Frohlich PF. Update on female sexual function. Curr Opin Urol. (2001)
  36. Brown AD, Blagg J, Reynolds DS. Designing drugs for the treatment of female sexual dysfunction. Drug Discov Today. (2007)
  37. Safarinejad MR. Reversal of SSRI-induced female sexual dysfunction by adjunctive bupropion in menstruating women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized study. J Psychopharmacol. (2011)
  38. Stryjer R, et al. Trazodone for the treatment of sexual dysfunction induced by serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a preliminary open-label study. Clin Neuropharmacol. (2009)
  39. Michael RP, Clancy AN, Zumpe D. Effects of mating on c-fos expression in the brains of male macaques. Physiol Behav. (1999)