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Hypogonadism

Hypogonadism is a syndrome that produces signs and symptoms of testosterone deficiency due to problems with either the testes (primary hypogonadism) or the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (secondary hypogonadism).

Our evidence-based analysis on hypogonadism features 24 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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References

  1. Kreider RB, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2017)
  2. O'Leary CB, Hackney AC. Acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on the testosterone and cortisol responses in obese males: a systematic review. Physiol Res. (2014)
  3. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sports Med. (2005)
  4. van der Merwe J, Brooks NE, Myburgh KH. Three weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation affects dihydrotestosterone to testosterone ratio in college-aged rugby players. Clin J Sport Med. (2009)
  5. Vatani DS, et al. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Performance and Hormonal Response in Amateur Swimmers. Science and Sports. (2011)
  6. Arazi H, et al. Effects of short term creatine supplementation and resistance exercises on resting hormonal and cardiovascular responses. Science and Sports. (2015)
  7. Cook CJ, et al. Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation - a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2011)
  8. Cooke MB, et al. Creatine supplementation post-exercise does not enhance training-induced adaptations in middle to older aged males. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2014)
  9. Crowe MJ, O'Connor DM, Lukins JE. The effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB/creatine supplementation on indices of health in highly trained athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2003)
  10. Hoffman J, et al. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2006)
  11. Eijnde BO, Hespel P. Short-term creatine supplementation does not alter the hormonal response to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2001)
  12. Volek JS, et al. The effects of creatine supplementation on muscular performance and body composition responses to short-term resistance training overreaching. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2004)
  13. Faraji H, et al. The effects of creatine supplementation on sprint running performance and selected hormonal responses. SAJRSPER. (2010)
  14. Rahimi R, et al. Creatine supplementation alters the hormonal response to resistance exercise. Kinesiology. (2010)
  15. Volek JS, et al. Response of Testosterone and Cortisol Concentrations to High-Intensity Resistance Exercise Following Creatine Supplementation. JSCR. (1997)
  16. Tyka AK, et al. Effect of creatine malate supplementation on physical performance, body composition and selected hormone levels in spinters and long-distance runners. Acta Physiol Hung. (2015)
  17. Wilson JM, et al. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid reduces markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and improves recovery in resistance-trained men. Br J Nutr. (2013)
  18. Hoffman JR, et al. Effects of beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate on power performance and indices of muscle damage and stress during high-intensity training. J Strength Cond Res. (2004)
  19. Portal S, et al. The effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal and inflammatory mediators in elite adolescent volleyball players: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2011)
  20. Slater GJ, et al. Beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation does not influence the urinary testosterone: epitestosterone ratio in healthy males. J Sci Med Sport. (2000)
  21. Zahra Kiasalari, Mohsen Khalili, Mahbobeh Aghaei. Effect of withania somnifera on levels of sex hormones in the diabetic male rats. International Journal of Reproductive Biomed. (2009)
  22. Ahmad MK, et al. Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress in seminal plasma of infertile males. Fertil Steril. (2010)
  23. Mahdi AA, et al. Withania somnifera Improves Semen Quality in Stress-Related Male Fertility. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2009)
  24. Wankhede S, et al. Examining the effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on muscle strength and recovery: a randomized controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2015)