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High Cholesterol

High amounts of low-density lipoproteins cause fatty plaques to build up in the arteries, which restricts blood flow and can cause health problems like a heart attack. Lifestyle factors (e.g., poor diet, smoking) and genetics play a huge role in blood cholesterol levels.

Our evidence-based analysis on high cholesterol features 40 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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References

  1. ^ a b Ference BA, et al. Low-density lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. 1. Evidence from genetic, epidemiologic, and clinical studies. A consensus statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel. Eur Heart J. (2017)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Frank L J Visseren, et al. 2021 ESC Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Eur Heart J. (2021)
  3. ^ François Mach, et al. 2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J. (2020)
  4. ^ Arrigo F G Cicero, Federica Fogacci, Alberto Zambon. Red Yeast Rice for Hypercholesterolemia: JACC Focus Seminar. J Am Coll Cardiol. (2021)
  5. ^ Yue-E Sun, Weidong Wang, Jie Qin. Anti-hyperlipidemia of garlic by reducing the level of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). (2018)
  6. ^ Rouyanne T Ras, Johanna M Geleijnse, Elke A Trautwein. LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols and stanols across different dose ranges: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies. Br J Nutr. (2014)
  7. ^ Anne Whitehead, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat β-glucan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. (2014)
  8. ^ Glen J Pearson, et al. 2021 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidemia for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults. Can J Cardiol. (2021)
  9. ^ Michael A. Ibrahim, Edinen Asuka, Ishwarlal Jialal. Hypercholesterolemia.
  10. Egg intake does not change plasma lipoprotein and coagulation profiles.
  11. Bowman MP, et al. Effect of dietary fat and cholesterol on plasma lipids and lipoprotein fractions in normolipidemic men. J Nutr. (1988)
  12. Chenoweth W, et al. Influence of dietary cholesterol and fat on serum lipids in men. J Nutr. (1981)
  13. Effect of dietary eggs and ascorbic acid on plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy young men.
  14. Down-regulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor by dietary cholesterol.
  15. Johnson C, Greenland P. Effects of exercise, dietary cholesterol, and dietary fat on blood lipids. Arch Intern Med. (1990)
  16. Sacks FM, et al. Ingestion of egg raises plasma low density lipoproteins in free-living subjects. Lancet. (1984)
  17. Flynn MA, et al. Serum lipids and eggs. J Am Diet Assoc. (1986)
  18. Fernandez ML. Dietary cholesterol provided by eggs and plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2006)
  19. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of the effects of two eggs per day in moderately hypercholesterolemic and combined hyperlipidemic subjects taught the NCEP step I diet.
  20. Romano G, et al. Effects of dietary cholesterol on plasma lipoproteins and their subclasses in IDDM patients. Diabetologia. (1998)
  21. Mayurasakorn K, et al. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol changes after continuous egg consumption in healthy adults. J Med Assoc Thai. (2008)
  22. Vishwanathan R, et al. Consumption of 2 and 4 egg yolks/d for 5 wk increases macular pigment concentrations in older adults with low macular pigment taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  23. Katz DL, et al. Egg consumption and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Int J Cardiol. (2005)
  24. Njike V, et al. Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults--effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk. Nutr J. (2010)
  25. Jones PJ. Dietary cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients: a review of the Harvard Egg Study and other data. Int J Clin Pract Suppl. (2009)
  26. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans: a meta-analysis.
  27. Fernandez ML. Effects of eggs on plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations. Food Funct. (2010)
  28. McNamara DJ. The impact of egg limitations on coronary heart disease risk: do the numbers add up. J Am Coll Nutr. (2000)
  29. Fernandez ML, Calle M. Revisiting dietary cholesterol recommendations: does the evidence support a limit of 300 mg/d. Curr Atheroscler Rep. (2010)
  30. Eggs, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease.
  31. Djoussé L, et al. Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  32. Hu FB, et al. A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. JAMA. (1999)
  33. Herron KL, et al. High intake of cholesterol results in less atherogenic low-density lipoprotein particles in men and women independent of response classification. Metabolism. (2004)
  34. Spence JD, Jenkins DJ, Davignon J. Dietary cholesterol and egg yolks: not for patients at risk of vascular disease. Can J Cardiol. (2010)
  35. Pearce KL, Clifton PM, Noakes M. Egg consumption as part of an energy-restricted high-protein diet improves blood lipid and blood glucose profiles in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Br J Nutr. (2011)
  36. Goodrow EF, et al. Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. J Nutr. (2006)
  37. Hays JH, et al. Effect of a high saturated fat and no-starch diet on serum lipid subfractions in patients with documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Mayo Clin Proc. (2003)
  38. Mutungi G, et al. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases plasma HDL cholesterol in overweight men consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet. J Nutr. (2008)
  39. Mutungi G, et al. Eggs distinctly modulate plasma carotenoid and lipoprotein subclasses in adult men following a carbohydrate-restricted diet. J Nutr Biochem. (2010)
  40. Fernández-Robredo P, et al. Egg yolk improves lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and retinal abnormalities in a murine model of genetic hypercholesterolemia. J Nutr Biochem. (2008)