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Food Intake

Food intake refers to the quantitative amount of food ingested over a designated period of time, and does not necessarily reflect hunger nor appetite. Appetite suppressants should result in a reduction in food intake.

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Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect food intake.
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Supplement Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-b - High See all 4 studies
No significant influence on food intake in standard diabetics, although limited evidence suggest a possible role specifically in persons who self-report elevated carbohydrate cravings and inappropriate eating patterns due to urges.
grade-b - High See all 4 studies
Although there are sporadic alterations seen in food intake in studies using HMB supplementation, they are not reliable and the exact change observed changes. It is likely that there is no significant effect per se and this is due to the study population
grade-c Minor - See study
A decrease in voluntary food intake has been noted with grape seed extract ingestion, appetite per se not measured

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