Quick Navigation

Fat

A vague term that can address either dietary lipids (the fat found in foods) or the body fat on your belly (see: fat mass); dietary fats and body fat are similar in structure, but they cannot be used interchangeably as biology is quite complex.

Our evidence-based analysis on fat features 276 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by .
Reviewed by
Examine.com Team
Last Updated:

Summary of Fat

Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts

See supplements rated for fat loss.

Frequently Asked Questions about Fat

Will eating eggs increase my cholesterol?
Eggs increasing cholesterol depends on your genetics. They don't seem to increase the risk of heart disease unless you have a poor diet.
How to minimize fat gain during the holidays
Holiday season is when most people gain weight (and then struggle to take it off). Overfeeding on protein could be your solution in helping minimize the fat gain.
How important is sleep?
Sleep is incredibly important, and can be considered crucial alongside diet and exercise. Proper sleep habits help sustain many biological processes, and bad sleep can cause these processes to be suboptimal or even malfunction.
Does high-protein intake help when dieting?
We analyze a study which suggests that a higher protein-intake while dieting can help you lose more fat.
How does protein affect weight loss?
When the goal is to intentionally lose weight, eating more protein can help both reduce body fat and maintain lean mass. The amount of protein tends to be more imporant than the source.
Measuring body fat percentage: It's an accuracy thing
Comparing DEXA versus Bod Pod for people with different BMI.
Is saturated fat bad for your health?
Saturated fat is not inherently harmful. Compared to carbohydrates and unsaturated fat, it has been linked to an increase in some risk factors for heart disease, but not directly to heart disease itself. As usual, by focusing on a nutrient in isolation, we risk missing the bigger picture: what matters most is your overall diet and lifestyle.
Low-fat vs low-carb? Major study concludes: it doesn’t matter for weight loss
A year-long randomized clinical trial (DIETFITS) has found that a low-fat diet and a low-carb diet produced similar weight loss and improvements in metabolic health markers. Furthermore, insulin production and tested genes had no impact on predicting weight loss success or failure. Thus, evidence to date indicates you should choose your diet based on personal preferences, health goals, and sustainability.
Can one binge make you fat?
While regular overeating leads to fat gain, a lot of the weight you gain from just one binge will simply be water, especially if your starting glycogen stores are low and your food rich in carbs.
How do I get a six-pack?
You eat less food to reduce body fat. There will be abdominal muscles under the fat, and adding some muscle to this area (resistance training) can make them appear more aesthetic; fat loss is the main predictor, however
Does eating fat make you fat?
If you ingest more calories than you burn, it may be worse for your waist if those calories come from fat. If you ingest fewer calories than you burn, however, it doesn’t seem to matter much whether those calories come mostly from fat or mostly from carbs.
Is diet soda bad for you?
Research suggests that diet soda is unlikely to be detrimental to metabolic health or body composition. Further controlled trial evidence is needed to explore other possible detriments.
What should you eat for weight loss?
When it comes to figuring out what to eat for weight loss, the most important factor is eating less. When you consume less calories than you spend you will lose weight and the diet that helps you lose weight best will be the one that allows you to consume less calories without causing much distress or lethargy. The key is to pick a diet that you can adhere to.
Does eating a higher carb diet make you more full?
A study compared real-life high-carb diet versus a high-fat diet and found that a high-carb diet kept you more full (satiated).
Will carbs make me fat?
They can if you eat more calories than you should be eating, which is definitely a concern as carbohydrates are disconnected from the sensation of fullness in some people (preceding overeating). Inherently though, carbs do not cause more fat gain than the caloric load suggests
A compound from beer may help fat loss
A recent study shows that a compound in beer may help with fat loss.
Does diet soda inhibit fat loss?
It does not inhibit fat loss at all, and may actually suppress appetite that could help fat loss (although it does not induce fat loss per se either). Diet soda, in regards to body fat, is a carbonated inert beverage
How eating better can make you happier
Food and supplements that can help fight stress, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and help you sleep better.
Does Garcinia Cambogia help with weight loss?
Garcinia Cambogia does not appear to help with weight loss in humans despite its popularity, and this is due to a profound difference in how it affects rats and humans.
Does eating at night make it more likely to gain weight?
While the evidence is mixed, depending on who was studied and what the diets were, there does not seem to be a major inherent weight-gain effect when eating late at night. Individual results may vary, and other factors such as circadian rhythms should be considered as well.
How are carbohydrates converted into fat deposits?
How do I stay out of "starvation mode?"
Marasmus is a disease of caloric restriction, but you most likely don't have it. Your metabolic rate can definitely slow down during weight loss, but it will never slow to the point where it causes you to gain weight; in this sense, starvation mode is a myth.
Can hypothyroidism lead to fat gain?
Yes, a less active thyroid will reduce metabolic rate and can cause some weight gain. It is not a lot of weight gain though, and a subactive thyroid is not an excuse for obesity (if hypothyroidic, please see a doctor for medication; it burns fat)
What is Adrenal Fatigue?
How do I lose fat around my belly?
I have lost significant weight and now have loose skin. How can I tighten up my skin?
Will lifting weights convert my fat into muscle?

References

  1. Poudyal H, Brown L. Should the pharmacological actions of dietary fatty acids in cardiometabolic disorders be classified based on biological or chemical function?. Prog Lipid Res. (2015)
  2. Grundy SM. Influence of stearic acid on cholesterol metabolism relative to other long-chain fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr. (1994)
  3. Vandenberghe C, et al. Tricaprylin alone increases plasma ketone response more than coconut oil or other medium chain triglycerides: an acute crossover study in healthy adults. Curr Dev Nutr. (2017)
  4. Neal EG, et al. A randomized trial of classical and medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diets in the treatment of childhood epilepsy. Epilepsia. (2009)
  5. Orsavova J, et al. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids. Int J Mol Sci. (2015)
  6. KEYS A, ANDERSON JT, GRANDE F. Prediction of serum-cholesterol responses of man to changes in fats in the diet. Lancet. (1957)
  7. KEYS A, GRANDE F. Role of dietary fat in human nutrition. III. Diet and the epidemiology of coronary heart disease. Am J Public Health Nations Health. (1957)
  8. Keys A, et al. The seven countries study: 2,289 deaths in 15 years. Prev Med. (1984)
  9. Keys A, et al. The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study. Am J Epidemiol. (1986)
  10. Reiser R. Saturated fat in the diet and serum cholesterol concentration: a critical examination of the literature. Am J Clin Nutr. (1973)
  11. Tabas I, Williams KJ, Borén J. Subendothelial lipoprotein retention as the initiating process in atherosclerosis: update and therapeutic implications. Circulation. (2007)
  12. Lusis AJ. Atherosclerosis. Nature. (2000)
  13. World Health Organization. Effects of saturated fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a systematic review and regression analysis. . (2016)
  14. Allaire J, et al. LDL particle number and size and cardiovascular risk: anything new under the sun?. Curr Opin Lipidol. (2017)
  15. Otvos JD, et al. Clinical implications of discordance between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and particle number. J Clin Lipidol. (2011)
  16. Contois JH, et al. Apolipoprotein B and cardiovascular disease risk: position statement from the AACC Lipoproteins and Vascular Diseases Division Working Group on Best Practices. Clin Chem. (2009)
  17. Sniderman AD, et al. A meta-analysis of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B as markers of cardiovascular risk. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. (2011)
  18. Feig JE, Feig JL, Dangas GD. The role of HDL in plaque stabilization and regression: basic mechanisms and clinical implications. Coron Artery Dis. (2016)
  19. Millán J, et al. Lipoprotein ratios: Physiological significance and clinical usefulness in cardiovascular prevention. Vasc Health Risk Manag. (2009)
  20. McQueen MJ, et al. Lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins as risk markers of myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): a case-control study. Lancet. (2008)
  21. Walldius G, et al. The apoB/apoA-I ratio is better than the cholesterol ratios to estimate the balance between plasma proatherogenic and antiatherogenic lipoproteins and to predict coronary risk. Clin Chem Lab Med. (2004)
  22. da Luz PL, et al. Comparison of serum lipid values in patients with coronary artery disease at <50, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and >70 years of age. Am J Cardiol. (2005)
  23. da Luz PL, et al. High ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol predicts extensive coronary disease. Clinics (Sao Paulo). (2008)
  24. Hanak V, et al. Accuracy of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for prediction of the low-density lipoprotein phenotype B. Am J Cardiol. (2004)
  25. Golia E, et al. Inflammation and cardiovascular disease: from pathogenesis to therapeutic target. Curr Atheroscler Rep. (2014)
  26. Bertrand MJ, Tardif JC. Inflammation and beyond: new directions and emerging drugs for treating atherosclerosis. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. (2017)
  27. Fritsche KL. The science of fatty acids and inflammation. Adv Nutr. (2015)
  28. Rietschel ET, et al. Bacterial endotoxin: molecular relationships of structure to activity and function. FASEB J. (1994)
  29. Miller SI, Ernst RK, Bader MW. LPS, TLR4 and infectious disease diversity. Nat Rev Microbiol. (2005)
  30. Copeland S, et al. Acute inflammatory response to endotoxin in mice and humans. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. (2005)
  31. Santos S, Oliveira A, Lopes C. Systematic review of saturated fatty acids on inflammation and circulating levels of adipokines. Nutr Res. (2013)
  32. Kratz M, et al. Effects of dietary fatty acids on the composition and oxidizability of low-density lipoprotein. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2002)
  33. Chowdhury R, et al. Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. (2014)
  34. Siri-Tarino PW, et al. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  35. Mozaffarian D, Micha R, Wallace S. Effects on coronary heart disease of increasing polyunsaturated fat in place of saturated fat: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS Med. (2010)
  36. Ramsden CE, et al. n-6 fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. (2010)
  37. Hamley S. The effect of replacing saturated fat with mostly n-6 polyunsaturated fat on coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Nutr J. (2017)
  38. Månsson HL. Fatty acids in bovine milk fat. Food Nutr Res. (2008)
  39. Huth PJ, Park KM. Influence of dairy product and milk fat consumption on cardiovascular disease risk: a review of the evidence. Adv Nutr. (2012)
  40. Lovegrove JA, Hobbs DA. New perspectives on dairy and cardiovascular health. Proc Nutr Soc. (2016)
  41. Rosqvist F, et al. Potential role of milk fat globule membrane in modulating plasma lipoproteins, gene expression, and cholesterol metabolism in humans: a randomized study. Am J Clin Nutr. (2015)
  42. O'Sullivan TA, et al. Food sources of saturated fat and the association with mortality: a meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. (2013)
  43. Vlassara H, et al. Oral AGE restriction ameliorates insulin resistance in obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. (2016)
  44. Briggs MA, Petersen KS, Kris-Etherton PM. Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Replacements for Saturated Fat to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk. Healthcare (Basel). (2017)
  45. Zong G, et al. Monounsaturated fats from plant and animal sources in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among US men and women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (2018)
  46. Hussain G, et al. Fatting the brain: a brief of recent research. Front Cell Neurosci. (2013)
  47. Fernandes MF, Mutch DM, Leri F. The Relationship between Fatty Acids and Different Depression-Related Brain Regions, and Their Potential Role as Biomarkers of Response to Antidepressants. Nutrients. (2017)
  48. Kien CL, et al. Substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat is associated with increased daily physical activity and resting energy expenditure and with changes in mood. Am J Clin Nutr. (2013)
  49. Dumas JA, et al. Dietary saturated fat and monounsaturated fat have reversible effects on brain function and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in young women. Metabolism. (2016)
  50. Sartorius T, et al. Monounsaturated fatty acids prevent the aversive effects of obesity on locomotion, brain activity, and sleep behavior. Diabetes. (2012)
  51. Kaviani S, Cooper JA. Appetite responses to high-fat meals or diets of varying fatty acid composition: a comprehensive review. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2017)
  52. Krishnan S, Cooper JA. Effect of dietary fatty acid composition on substrate utilization and body weight maintenance in humans. Eur J Nutr. (2014)
  53. Jones PJ, Pencharz PB, Clandinin MT. Whole body oxidation of dietary fatty acids: implications for energy utilization. Am J Clin Nutr. (1985)
  54. Schmidt DE, Allred JB, Kien CL. Fractional oxidation of chylomicron-derived oleate is greater than that of palmitate in healthy adults fed frequent small meals. J Lipid Res. (1999)
  55. Dorgan JF, et al. Effects of dietary fat and fiber on plasma and urine androgens and estrogens in men: a controlled feeding study. Am J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  56. Wang C, et al. Low-fat high-fiber diet decreased serum and urine androgens in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2005)
  57. Hämäläinen E, et al. Diet and serum sex hormones in healthy men. J Steroid Biochem. (1984)
  58. Raben A, et al. Serum sex hormones and endurance performance after a lacto-ovo vegetarian and a mixed diet. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (1992)
  59. Gardner CD, et al. Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. (2018)
  60. Gardner CD, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA. (2007)
  61. Sacks FM, et al. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med. (2009)
  62. Pittas AG, et al. A low-glycemic load diet facilitates greater weight loss in overweight adults with high insulin secretion but not in overweight adults with low insulin secretion in the CALERIE Trial. Diabetes Care. (2005)
  63. Qi Q, et al. Insulin receptor substrate 1 gene variation modifies insulin resistance response to weight-loss diets in a 2-year randomized trial: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial. Circulation. (2011)
  64. Westman EC, et al. Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  65. Hall KD, Guo J. Obesity Energetics: Body Weight Regulation and the Effects of Diet Composition. Gastroenterology. (2017)
  66. Johnston BC, et al. Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA. (2014)
  67. Bueno NB, et al. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. (2013)
  68. McClain AD, et al. Adherence to a low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diet differs by insulin resistance status. Diabetes Obes Metab. (2013)
  69. Cornier MA, et al. Insulin sensitivity determines the effectiveness of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss in obese women. Obes Res. (2005)
  70. Jensen MD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation. (2014)
  71. Sullivan AC, et al. Effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat. II. Appetite. Lipids. (1974)
  72. Heymsfield SB, et al. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (1998)
  73. Kim JE, et al. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial. Nutr J. (2011)
  74. Mattes RD, Bormann L. Effects of (-)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables. Physiol Behav. (2000)
  75. Leonhardt M, Hrupka B, Langhans W. Effect of hydroxycitrate on food intake and body weight regain after a period of restrictive feeding in male rats. Physiol Behav. (2001)
  76. Leonhardt M, Balkan B, Langhans W. Effect of hydroxycitrate on respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, and glucose tolerance in male rats after a period of restrictive feeding. Nutrition. (2004)
  77. Thyroid.org: Thyroid and Weight.
  78. Dale J, et al. Weight gain following treatment of hyperthyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (2001)
  79. Fox CS, et al. Relations of thyroid function to body weight: cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in a community-based sample. Arch Intern Med. (2008)
  80. Karmisholt J, Andersen S, Laurberg P. Weight loss after therapy of hypothyroidism is mainly caused by excretion of excess body water associated with myxoedema. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2011)
  81. Crocker MK, Kaplowitz P. Treatment of paediatric hyperthyroidism but not hypothyroidism has a significant effect on weight. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (2010)
  82. Minnesota Starvation Experiment.
  83. Schwartz A, Doucet E. Relative changes in resting energy expenditure during weight loss: a systematic review. Obes Rev. (2010)
  84. Features of a successful therapeutic fast of 382 days' duration.
  85. Nonino-Borges CB, et al. Influence of meal time on salivary circadian cortisol rhythms and weight loss in obese women. Nutrition. (2007)
  86. Sofer S, et al. Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2011)
  87. Jakubowicz D, et al. High caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2013)
  88. James D. LeCheminant, et al. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study. British Journal of Nutrition. (2013)
  89. Keim NL, et al. Weight loss is greater with consumption of large morning meals and fat-free mass is preserved with large evening meals in women on a controlled weight reduction regimen. J Nutr. (1997)
  90. Goel N, et al. Circadian rhythm profiles in women with night eating syndrome. J Biol Rhythms. (2009)
  91. Patton DF, Mistlberger RE.. Circadian adaptations to meal timing: neuroendocrine mechanisms. Front Neurosci.. (2013)
  92. Maersk M, et al. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  93. Tate DF, et al. Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  94. Wang YC, et al. Impact of change in sweetened caloric beverage consumption on energy intake among children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. (2009)
  95. Chen L, et al. Reduction in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight loss: the PREMIER trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  96. Davidson TL, Swithers SE. A Pavlovian approach to the problem of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2004)
  97. Hellerstein MK. De novo lipogenesis in humans: metabolic and regulatory aspects. Eur J Clin Nutr. (1999)
  98. Hellerstein MK. No common energy currency: de novo lipogenesis as the road less traveled. Am J Clin Nutr. (2001)
  99. McDevitt RM, et al. De novo lipogenesis during controlled overfeeding with sucrose or glucose in lean and obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2001)
  100. Schwarz JM, et al. Short-term alterations in carbohydrate energy intake in humans. Striking effects on hepatic glucose production, de novo lipogenesis, lipolysis, and whole-body fuel selection. J Clin Invest. (1995)
  101. Vispute SS, et al. The effect of abdominal exercise on abdominal fat. J Strength Cond Res. (2011)
  102. Green JS, et al. The effects of exercise training on abdominal visceral fat, body composition, and indicators of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen replacement therapy: the HERITAGE family study. Metabolism. (2004)
  103. Evans EM, et al. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012)
  104. Bopp MJ, et al. Lean mass loss is associated with low protein intake during dietary-induced weight loss in postmenopausal women. J Am Diet Assoc. (2008)
  105. Mojtahedi MC, et al. The effects of a higher protein intake during energy restriction on changes in body composition and physical function in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. (2011)
  106. Gordon MM, et al. Effects of dietary protein on the composition of weight loss in post-menopausal women. J Nutr Health Aging. (2008)
  107. Treyzon L, et al. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass. Nutr J. (2008)
  108. Noakes M, et al. Effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diet relative to a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight loss, body composition, nutritional status, and markers of cardiovascular health in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  109. Clifton PM, Bastiaans K, Keogh JB. High protein diets decrease total and abdominal fat and improve CVD risk profile in overweight and obese men and women with elevated triacylglycerol. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2009)
  110. Josse AR, et al. Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women. J Nutr. (2011)
  111. Labayen I, et al. Effects of protein vs. carbohydrate-rich diets on fuel utilisation in obese women during weight loss. Forum Nutr. (2003)
  112. de Souza RJ, et al. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  113. Loenneke JP, et al. Quality protein intake is inversely related with abdominal fat. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012)
  114. Loenneke JP, et al. Short report: Relationship between quality protein, lean mass and bone health. Ann Nutr Metab. (2010)
  115. Swinburn B, Sacks G, Ravussin E. Increased food energy supply is more than sufficient to explain the US epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  116. Lack of evidence for high fructose corn syrup as the cause of the obesity epidemic.
  117. Leibel RL, et al. Energy intake required to maintain body weight is not affected by wide variation in diet composition. Am J Clin Nutr. (1992)
  118. Golay A, et al. Similar weight loss with low- or high-carbohydrate diets. Am J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  119. Golay A, et al. Weight-loss with low or high carbohydrate diet. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1996)
  120. Luscombe-Marsh ND, et al. Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  121. Bray GA, et al. Effect of dietary protein content on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition during overeating: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (2012)
  122. Keogh JB, et al. Long-term weight maintenance and cardiovascular risk factors are not different following weight loss on carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein in obese hyperinsulinaemic men and women. Br J Nutr. (2007)
  123. Farnsworth E, et al. Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. (2003)
  124. Brinkworth GD, et al. Long-term effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2004)
  125. McLaughlin T, et al. Effects of moderate variations in macronutrient composition on weight loss and reduction in cardiovascular disease risk in obese, insulin-resistant adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  126. Sargrad KR, et al. Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc. (2005)
  127. Boden G, et al. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med. (2005)
  128. Heilbronn LK, Noakes M, Clifton PM. Effect of energy restriction, weight loss, and diet composition on plasma lipids and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. (1999)
  129. Parker B, et al. Effect of a high-protein, high-monounsaturated fat weight loss diet on glycemic control and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. (2002)
  130. Thomson RL, et al. The effect of a hypocaloric diet with and without exercise training on body composition, cardiometabolic risk profile, and reproductive function in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
  131. Strasser B, Spreitzer A, Haber P. Fat loss depends on energy deficit only, independently of the method for weight loss. Ann Nutr Metab. (2007)
  132. Astrup A, Meinert Larsen T, Harper A. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss. Lancet. (2004)
  133. Golay A, et al. Similar weight loss with low-energy food combining or balanced diets. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2000)
  134. Egg intake does not change plasma lipoprotein and coagulation profiles.
  135. Bowman MP, et al. Effect of dietary fat and cholesterol on plasma lipids and lipoprotein fractions in normolipidemic men. J Nutr. (1988)
  136. Chenoweth W, et al. Influence of dietary cholesterol and fat on serum lipids in men. J Nutr. (1981)
  137. Effect of dietary eggs and ascorbic acid on plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy young men.
  138. Down-regulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor by dietary cholesterol.
  139. Johnson C, Greenland P. Effects of exercise, dietary cholesterol, and dietary fat on blood lipids. Arch Intern Med. (1990)
  140. Sacks FM, et al. Ingestion of egg raises plasma low density lipoproteins in free-living subjects. Lancet. (1984)
  141. Flynn MA, et al. Serum lipids and eggs. J Am Diet Assoc. (1986)
  142. Fernandez ML. Dietary cholesterol provided by eggs and plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2006)
  143. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of the effects of two eggs per day in moderately hypercholesterolemic and combined hyperlipidemic subjects taught the NCEP step I diet.
  144. Romano G, et al. Effects of dietary cholesterol on plasma lipoproteins and their subclasses in IDDM patients. Diabetologia. (1998)
  145. Mayurasakorn K, et al. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol changes after continuous egg consumption in healthy adults. J Med Assoc Thai. (2008)
  146. Vishwanathan R, et al. Consumption of 2 and 4 egg yolks/d for 5 wk increases macular pigment concentrations in older adults with low macular pigment taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  147. Katz DL, et al. Egg consumption and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Int J Cardiol. (2005)
  148. Njike V, et al. Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults--effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk. Nutr J. (2010)
  149. Jones PJ. Dietary cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients: a review of the Harvard Egg Study and other data. Int J Clin Pract Suppl. (2009)
  150. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans: a meta-analysis.
  151. Fernandez ML. Effects of eggs on plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations. Food Funct. (2010)
  152. McNamara DJ. The impact of egg limitations on coronary heart disease risk: do the numbers add up. J Am Coll Nutr. (2000)
  153. Fernandez ML, Calle M. Revisiting dietary cholesterol recommendations: does the evidence support a limit of 300 mg/d. Curr Atheroscler Rep. (2010)
  154. Eggs, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease.
  155. Djoussé L, et al. Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  156. Hu FB, et al. A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. JAMA. (1999)
  157. Herron KL, et al. High intake of cholesterol results in less atherogenic low-density lipoprotein particles in men and women independent of response classification. Metabolism. (2004)
  158. Spence JD, Jenkins DJ, Davignon J. Dietary cholesterol and egg yolks: not for patients at risk of vascular disease. Can J Cardiol. (2010)
  159. Pearce KL, Clifton PM, Noakes M. Egg consumption as part of an energy-restricted high-protein diet improves blood lipid and blood glucose profiles in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Br J Nutr. (2011)
  160. Goodrow EF, et al. Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. J Nutr. (2006)
  161. Hays JH, et al. Effect of a high saturated fat and no-starch diet on serum lipid subfractions in patients with documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Mayo Clin Proc. (2003)
  162. Mutungi G, et al. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases plasma HDL cholesterol in overweight men consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet. J Nutr. (2008)
  163. Mutungi G, et al. Eggs distinctly modulate plasma carotenoid and lipoprotein subclasses in adult men following a carbohydrate-restricted diet. J Nutr Biochem. (2010)
  164. Fernández-Robredo P, et al. Egg yolk improves lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and retinal abnormalities in a murine model of genetic hypercholesterolemia. J Nutr Biochem. (2008)
  165. Du M, Yin J, Zhu MJ. Cellular signaling pathways regulating the initial stage of adipogenesis and marbling of skeletal muscle. Meat Sci. (2010)
  166. Frayn KN. Fat as a fuel: emerging understanding of the adipose tissue-skeletal muscle axis. Acta Physiol (Oxf). (2010)
  167. GOLDNER F Jr. A review of the transamination reaction and its relationship to acute myocardial infarction. Am Pract Dig Treat. (1957)
  168. Hirotsu K, et al. Dual substrate recognition of aminotransferases. Chem Rec. (2005)
  169. Phillips SM. The science of muscle hypertrophy: making dietary protein count. Proc Nutr Soc. (2011)
  170. Phillips SM, Hartman JW, Wilkinson SB. Dietary protein to support anabolism with resistance exercise in young men. J Am Coll Nutr. (2005)
  171. Acheson KJ, et al. Glycogen storage capacity and de novo lipogenesis during massive carbohydrate overfeeding in man. Am J Clin Nutr. (1988)
  172. Minehira K, et al. Effect of carbohydrate overfeeding on whole body and adipose tissue metabolism in humans. Obes Res. (2003)
  173. Nettleton JA, et al. Diet soda intake and risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Diabetes Care. (2009)
  174. Dhingra R, et al. Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community. Circulation. (2007)
  175. Gardener H, et al. Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with an Increased Risk of Vascular Events in the Northern Manhattan Study. J Gen Intern Med. (2012)
  176. Kaplowitz GJ. An update on the dangers of soda pop. Dent Assist. (2011)
  177. Cheng R, et al. Dental erosion and severe tooth decay related to soft drinks: a case report and literature review. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. (2009)
  178. Shenkin JD, et al. Soft drink consumption and caries risk in children and adolescents. Gen Dent. (2003)
  179. Yi S, et al. Short sleep duration in association with CT-scanned abdominal fat areas: the Hitachi Health Study. Int J Obes (Lond). (2012)
  180. Park SE, et al. The association between sleep duration and general and abdominal obesity in Koreans: data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001 and 2005. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2009)
  181. Hairston KG, et al. Sleep duration and five-year abdominal fat accumulation in a minority cohort: the IRAS family study. Sleep. (2010)
  182. Watson NF, et al. Sleep duration and body mass index in twins: a gene-environment interaction. Sleep. (2012)
  183. Di Milia L, Vandelanotte C, Duncan MJ. The association between short sleep and obesity after controlling for demographic, lifestyle, work and health related factors. Sleep Med. (2013)
  184. Nedeltcheva AV, et al. Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposity. Ann Intern Med. (2010)
  185. Benedict C, et al. Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances the Brain's Response to Hedonic Food Stimuli: An fMRI Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2012)
  186. St-Onge MP, et al. Sleep restriction leads to increased activation of brain regions sensitive to food stimuli. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  187. Bosy-Westphal A, et al. Influence of partial sleep deprivation on energy balance and insulin sensitivity in healthy women. Obes Facts. (2008)
  188. Spiegel K, Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Impact of sleep debt on physiological rhythms. Rev Neurol (Paris). (2003)
  189. Lemola S, et al. Optimism and Self-Esteem Are Related to Sleep. Results from a Large Community-Based Sample. Int J Behav Med. (2012)
  190. Sio UN, Monaghan P, Ormerod T. Sleep on it, but only if it is difficult: Effects of sleep on problem solving. Mem Cognit. (2012)
  191. Knutson KL. Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2010)
  192. Choi JK, et al. Association between short sleep duration and high incidence of metabolic syndrome in midlife women. Tohoku J Exp Med. (2011)
  193. Najafian J, et al. Association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome in a population-based study: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. J Res Med Sci. (2011)
  194. Cappuccio FP, et al. Quantity and quality of sleep and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. (2010)
  195. Beihl DA, Liese AD, Haffner SM. Sleep duration as a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes in a multiethnic cohort. Ann Epidemiol. (2009)
  196. Chaput JP, et al. Sleep duration as a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance: analyses of the Quebec Family Study. Sleep Med. (2009)
  197. Chao CY, et al. Sleep duration is a potential risk factor for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. (2011)
  198. Broussard JL, et al. Impaired insulin signaling in human adipocytes after experimental sleep restriction: a randomized, crossover study. Ann Intern Med. (2012)
  199. Robertson MD, et al. Effects of three weeks of mild sleep restriction implemented in the home environment on multiple metabolic and endocrine markers in healthy young men. Metabolism. (2013)
  200. Impact of Five Nights of Sleep Restriction on Glucose Metabolism, Leptin and Testosterone in Young Adult Men.
  201. Buxton OM, et al. Sleep restriction for 1 week reduces insulin sensitivity in healthy men. Diabetes. (2010)
  202. Donga E, et al. A single night of partial sleep deprivation induces insulin resistance in multiple metabolic pathways in healthy subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2010)
  203. Penev PD. Association between sleep and morning testosterone levels in older men. Sleep. (2007)
  204. Luboshitzky R, Shen-Orr Z, Herer P. Middle-aged men secrete less testosterone at night than young healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2003)
  205. Randler C, et al. Chronotype but not sleep length is related to salivary testosterone in young adult men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. (2012)
  206. Validation of the full and reduced Composite Scale of Morningness.
  207. An actigraphic validation study of seven morningness-eveningness inventories.
  208. Roenneberg T, et al. A marker for the end of adolescence. Curr Biol. (2004)
  209. Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Effect of 1 week of sleep restriction on testosterone levels in young healthy men. JAMA. (2011)
  210. Cortés-Gallegos V, et al. Sleep deprivation reduces circulating androgens in healthy men. Arch Androl. (1983)
  211. González-Santos MR, et al. Sleep deprivation and adaptive hormonal responses of healthy men. Arch Androl. (1989)
  212. Cote KA, et al. Sleep deprivation lowers reactive aggression and testosterone in men. Biol Psychol. (2013)
  213. Leproult R, et al. Sleep loss results in an elevation of cortisol levels the next evening. Sleep. (1997)
  214. Backhaus J, Junghanns K, Hohagen F. Sleep disturbances are correlated with decreased morning awakening salivary cortisol. Psychoneuroendocrinology. (2004)
  215. Wu H, et al. Effects of sleep restriction periods on serum cortisol levels in healthy men. Brain Res Bull. (2008)
  216. Vgontzas AN, et al. Sleep deprivation effects on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and growth axes: potential clinical implications. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1999)
  217. Caine-Bish N, et al. The effect of cold exposure on the hormonal and metabolic responses to sleep deprivation. Wilderness Environ Med. (2005)
  218. Opstad PK, et al. The thyroid function in young men during prolonged exercise and the effect of energy and sleep deprivation. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). (1984)
  219. Sadamatsu M, et al. The 24-hour rhythms in plasma growth hormone, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone: effect of sleep deprivation. J Neuroendocrinol. (1995)
  220. Klingenberg L, et al. Sleep restriction is not associated with a positive energy balance in adolescent boys. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  221. Koban M, Swinson KL. Chronic REM-sleep deprivation of rats elevates metabolic rate and increases UCP1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2005)
  222. Rechtschaffen A, Bergmann BM. Sleep deprivation in the rat: an update of the 1989 paper. Sleep. (2002)
  223. Takahashi Y, Kipnis DM, Daughaday WH. Growth hormone secretion during sleep. J Clin Invest. (1968)
  224. Sassin JF, et al. Human growth hormone release: relation to slow-wave sleep and sleep-walking cycles. Science. (1969)
  225. Gronfier C, et al. A quantitative evaluation of the relationships between growth hormone secretion and delta wave electroencephalographic activity during normal sleep and after enrichment in delta waves. Sleep. (1996)
  226. Van Cauter E, et al. A quantitative estimation of growth hormone secretion in normal man: reproducibility and relation to sleep and time of day. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1992)
  227. Obál F Jr, Krueger JM. The somatotropic axis and sleep. Rev Neurol (Paris). (2001)
  228. Saini J, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Effects on growth hormone, insulin and glucose profiles in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Horm Metab Res. (1993)
  229. Brandenberger G, Weibel L. The 24-h growth hormone rhythm in men: sleep and circadian influences questioned. J Sleep Res. (2004)
  230. Ho KY, et al. Effects of sex and age on the 24-hour profile of growth hormone secretion in man: importance of endogenous estradiol concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1987)
  231. Brandenberger G, et al. Effect of sleep deprivation on overall 24 h growth-hormone secretion. Lancet. (2000)
  232. Spiegel K, et al. Adaptation of the 24-h growth hormone profile to a state of sleep debt. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. (2000)
  233. Li-Ng M, Kennedy L. Adrenal Insufficiency. J Surg Oncol. (2012)
  234. Salvatori R. Adrenal insufficiency. JAMA. (2005)
  235. Grossman R. The role of dimethylaminoethanol in cosmetic dermatology. Am J Clin Dermatol. (2005)
  236. Uhoda I, et al. Split face study on the cutaneous tensile effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) gel. Skin Res Technol. (2002)
  237. Tadini KA, Campos PM. In vivo skin effects of a dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) based formulation. Pharmazie. (2009)
  238. WISHNOFSKY M. Caloric equivalents of gained or lost weight. Am J Clin Nutr. (1958)
  239. Swaminathan R, et al. Thermic effect of feeding carbohydrate, fat, protein and mixed meal in lean and obese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. (1985)
  240. Jequier E. Thermogenic responses induced by nutrients in man: their importance in energy balance regulation. Experientia Suppl. (1983)
  241. de Jonge L, Bray GA. The thermic effect of food and obesity: a critical review. Obes Res. (1997)
  242. Tappy L. Thermic effect of food and sympathetic nervous system activity in humans. Reprod Nutr Dev. (1996)
  243. Vanltallie TB. Resistance to weight gain during overfeeding: a NEAT explanation. Nutr Rev. (2001)
  244. Kotz CM, et al. Spontaneous Physical Activity Defends Against Obesity. Curr Obes Rep. (2017)
  245. Levine JA. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2002)
  246. Cahill GF Jr. Fuel metabolism in starvation. Annu Rev Nutr. (2006)
  247. Nilsson LH. Liver glycogen content in man in the postabsorptive state. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. (1973)
  248. Molina DK, DiMaio VJ. Normal Organ Weights in Women: Part II-The Brain, Lungs, Liver, Spleen, and Kidneys. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. (2015)
  249. Molina DK, DiMaio VJ. Normal organ weights in men: part II-the brain, lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. (2012)
  250. Hultman E. Muscle glycogen in man determined in needle biopsy specimens: method and normal values. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. (1967)
  251. Later W, et al. Is the 1975 Reference Man still a suitable reference?. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  252. Fernández-Elías VE, et al. Relationship between muscle water and glycogen recovery after prolonged exercise in the heat in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2015)
  253. Knuiman P, Hopman MT, Mensink M. Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2015)
  254. Murray B, Rosenbloom C. Fundamentals of glycogen metabolism for coaches and athletes. Nutr Rev. (2018)
  255. Schutz Y. Concept of fat balance in human obesity revisited with particular reference to de novo lipogenesis. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2004)
  256. Acheson KJ, Flatt JP, Jéquier E. Glycogen synthesis versus lipogenesis after a 500 gram carbohydrate meal in man. Metabolism. (1982)
  257. Rakova N, et al. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake. J Clin Invest. (2017)
  258. Kitada K, et al. High salt intake reprioritizes osmolyte and energy metabolism for body fluid conservation. J Clin Invest. (2017)
  259. Gomes MB, et al. Influence of first morning urine volume, fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin on first morning urinary albumin concentration. Braz J Med Biol Res. (1997)
  260. Stasse-Wolthuis M, Katan MB, Hautvast JG. Fecal weight, transit time, and recommendations for dietary fiber intake. Am J Clin Nutr. (1978)
  261. Leaf A, Antonio J. The Effects of Overfeeding on Body Composition: The Role of Macronutrient Composition - A Narrative Review. Int J Exerc Sci. (2017)
  262. Bouchard C, et al. The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins. N Engl J Med. (1990)
  263. Horton TJ, et al. Fat and carbohydrate overfeeding in humans: different effects on energy storage. Am J Clin Nutr. (1995)
  264. Galgani J, Ravussin E. Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation. Int J Obes (Lond). (2008)
  265. Schutz Y, Flatt JP, Jéquier E. Failure of dietary fat intake to promote fat oxidation: a factor favoring the development of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. (1989)
  266. Flatt JP, et al. Effects of dietary fat on postprandial substrate oxidation and on carbohydrate and fat balances. J Clin Invest. (1985)
  267. Abbott WG, et al. Short-term energy balance: relationship with protein, carbohydrate, and fat balances. Am J Physiol. (1988)
  268. Rising R, et al. Food intake measured by an automated food-selection system: relationship to energy expenditure. Am J Clin Nutr. (1992)
  269. Frayn KN. Physiological regulation of macronutrient balance. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1995)
  270. Carreiro AL, et al. The Macronutrients, Appetite, and Energy Intake. Annu Rev Nutr. (2016)
  271. Rolls BJ. The role of energy density in the overconsumption of fat. J Nutr. (2000)
  272. Blundell JE, MacDiarmid JI. Fat as a risk factor for overconsumption: satiation, satiety, and patterns of eating. J Am Diet Assoc. (1997)
  273. Hall KD, et al. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity. Cell Metab. (2015)
  274. Bazzano LA, et al. Effects of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. (2014)
  275. Sackner-Bernstein J, Kanter D, Kaul S. Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. (2015)
  276. Foster-Schubert KE, et al. Effect of diet and exercise, alone or combined, on weight and body composition in overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2012)