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Esophageal Cancer Risk

Research analysis led by Kamal Patel .
Reviewed by
Examine.com Team
Last Updated:

Summary of Esophageal Cancer Risk

Primary Information, Benefits, Effects, and Important Facts

Scientific Information on Esophageal Cancer Risk

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Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect esophageal cancer risk
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
grade-c - - See study
400IU of vitamin E does not appear to mitigate the risk of developing esophageal cancer relative to placebo.
grade-d - - See study
The protective effect of 800mg aged garlic extract daily for 7.3 years does not appear to be statistically significant
grade-d - - See study
Although associations exist between mate consumption and esophageal cancer risk, this appears to apply to any (scalding) hot beverage and is not associated with cooled mate. The increased risk is associated with the heat rather than the drink constituents.