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Eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a common, painful skin condition where the skin is inflammed, itchy, and the skin barrier is disrupted. Treatment generally involves addressing each of these aspects.

Our evidence-based analysis on eczema features 44 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
Last Updated:


  1. ^ Weidinger S, et al. Atopic dermatitis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. (2018)
  2. ^ Jochen Schmitt, et al. Assessment of clinical signs of atopic dermatitis: a systematic review and recommendation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. (2013)
  3. ^ Weidinger S, Novak N. Atopic dermatitis. Lancet. (2015)
  4. ^ Maria J Martin, et al. Genetics and Epigenetics of Atopic Dermatitis: An Updated Systematic Review. Genes (Basel). (2020)
  5. ^ Alan D Irvine, W H Irwin McLean, Donald Y M Leung. Filaggrin mutations associated with skin and allergic diseases. N Engl J Med. (2011)
  6. ^ Elke Rodríguez, et al. Meta-analysis of filaggrin polymorphisms in eczema and asthma: robust risk factors in atopic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. (2009)
  7. ^ Yunling Li, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5 and risk of atopic dermatitis: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). (2020)
  8. ^ Jingyao Liang, et al. Interleukin 4 -590C/T (rs2243250) Polymorphism Is Associated With Increased Risk of Atopic Dermatitis: Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies. Dermatitis. (Mar/Apr)
  9. ^ Jian Zhao, Ze-Yu Chen, Lin-Feng Li. Association Between the IL-10-1082G/A, IL-10-592A/C, and IL-10-819G/A Polymorphisms and Atopic Dermatitis Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. (2019)
  10. ^ Yuan Zhang, et al. Analysis of the Association of Polymorphisms rs5743708 in TLR2 and rs4986790 in TLR4 with Atopic Dermatitis Risk. Immunol Invest. (2019)
  11. ^ Zhifeng Fang, et al. Gut Microbiota, Probiotics, and Their Interactions in Prevention and Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis: A Review. Front Immunol. (2021)
  12. ^ Anna Pothmann, et al. The Microbiome and Atopic Dermatitis: A Review. Am J Clin Dermatol. (2019)
  13. ^ a b H Alexander, et al. The role of bacterial skin infections in atopic dermatitis: expert statement and review from the International Eczema Council Skin Infection Group. Br J Dermatol. (2020)
  14. ^ a b Robert Kantor, et al. Association of atopic dermatitis with smoking: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. (2016)
  15. ^ Feifei Qiu, et al. Impacts of cigarette smoking on immune responsiveness: Up and down or upside down?. Oncotarget. (2017)
  16. ^ Yu Ting Ng, Fook Tim Chew. A systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors associated with atopic dermatitis in Asia. World Allergy Organ J. (2020)
  17. ^ A-S Halling-Overgaard, et al. Atopic dermatitis and alcohol use - a meta-analysis and systematic review. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. (2018)
  18. ^ Monika Calov, et al. The Association Between Season of Birth and Atopic Dermatitis in the Northern Hemisphere: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. (2020)
  19. ^ Bo L Chawes, et al. Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation During Pregnancy on Risk of Persistent Wheeze in the Offspring: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. (2016)
  20. ^ Debra J Palmer. Vitamin D and the Development of Atopic Eczema. J Clin Med. (2015)
  21. ^ Nasya Amalia, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of probiotic supplementation in pregnant mother, breastfeeding mother and infant for the prevention of atopic dermatitis in children. Australas J Dermatol. (2020)
  22. ^ Minghui Sun, et al. Can Mixed Strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Reduce Eczema in Infants under Three Years of Age? A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. (2021)
  23. ^ Shuya Sun, Guizhen Chang, Litao Zhang. The prevention effect of probiotics against eczema in children: an update systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dermatolog Treat. (2021)
  24. ^ T Tsakok, et al. Does early life exposure to antibiotics increase the risk of eczema? A systematic review. Br J Dermatol. (2013)
  25. ^ Wenshu Chen, et al. Prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and risk of childhood atopic dermatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. (2021)
  26. ^ Carmen W H Chan, et al. The Association between Maternal Stress and Childhood Eczema: A Systematic Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. (2018)
  27. ^ Minyoung Jung, et al. Effect of prenatal phthalate exposure on childhood atopic dermatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Allergy Asthma Proc. (2021)
  28. ^ Zarif K Jabbar-Lopez, et al. The effect of water hardness on atopic eczema, skin barrier function: A systematic review, meta-analysis. Clin Exp Allergy. (2021)
  29. ^ Dongqiong Xiao, et al. Association of acetaminophen exposure with increased risk of eczema in children: A meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. (2019)
  30. ^ Claudio Pelucchi, et al. Pet exposure and risk of atopic dermatitis at the pediatric age: a meta-analysis of birth cohort studies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. (2013)
  31. ^ Julien Sauser, et al. Partially Hydrolyzed Whey Infant Formula: Literature Review on Effects on Growth and the Risk of Developing Atopic Dermatitis in Infants from the General Population. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. (2018)
  32. ^ Alexandra R Vaughn, et al. Micronutrients in Atopic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review. J Altern Complement Med. (2019)
  33. ^ Darcy Güngör, et al. Infant milk-feeding practices and food allergies, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma throughout the life span: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. (2019)
  34. ^ Bingjiang Lin, et al. Breastfeeding and Atopic Dermatitis Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Dermatology. (2020)
  35. ^ Elaine Fuertes, et al. Associations between air pollution and pediatric eczema, rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma: A meta-analysis of European birth cohorts. Environ Int. (2020)
  36. ^ Marissa Ayasse, et al. Vaccines do not cause atopic dermatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vaccine. (2021)
  37. ^ Tammy Hua, et al. Does daily bathing or showering worsen atopic dermatitis severity? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Dermatol Res. (2020)
  38. ^ Kim G, Bae JH. Vitamin D and atopic dermatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition. (2016)
  39. ^ Ruixue Huang, et al. Probiotics for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. (2017)
  40. ^ Yung-Sen Chang, et al. Synbiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA Pediatr. (2016)
  41. ^ Joanna Jaros, Claire Wilson, Vivian Y Shi. Fabric Selection in Atopic Dermatitis: An Evidence-Based Review. Am J Clin Dermatol. (2020)
  42. ^ Cristina Lopes, et al. Functional textiles for atopic dermatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. (2013)
  43. ^ Yoichi Chida, et al. The effects of psychological intervention on atopic dermatitis. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. (2007)
  44. ^ Pérez-Ferriols A, et al. Phototherapy in Atopic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Actas Dermosifiliogr. (2015)