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Diabetes

There are several types of diabetes: diabetes insipidus is due to how the body responds to antidiuretic hormone; type I diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disorder that impacts the body's ability to produce insulin; type II diabetes mellitus is due to the body's poor ability to respond to insulin. When people casually say "diabetes", they're usually referring to diabetes mellitus.

Our evidence-based analysis on diabetes features 54 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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References

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  2. Bastard JP, et al. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Eur Cytokine Netw. (2006)
  3. Cnop M, et al. Mechanisms of pancreatic beta-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: many differences, few similarities. Diabetes. (2005)
  4. Akirav E, Kushner JA, Herold KC. Beta-cell mass and type 1 diabetes: going, going, gone. Diabetes. (2008)
  5. Stecenko AA, Moran A. Update on cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. Curr Opin Pulm Med. (2010)
  6. Short KR, et al. Impact of aerobic exercise training on age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and muscle oxidative capacity. Diabetes. (2003)
  7. Karakelides H, et al. Age, obesity, and sex effects on insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Diabetes. (2010)
  8. Finucane FM, et al. The effects of aerobic exercise on metabolic risk, insulin sensitivity and intrahepatic lipid in healthy older people from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. (2010)
  9. van der Heijden GJ, et al. Aerobic exercise increases peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in sedentary adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2009)
  10. Goulet ED, et al. Aerobic training improves insulin sensitivity 72-120 h after the last exercise session in younger but not in older women. Eur J Appl Physiol. (2005)
  11. Winnick JJ, et al. Short-term aerobic exercise training in obese humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus improves whole-body insulin sensitivity through gains in peripheral, not hepatic insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
  12. Krogh-Madsen R, et al. A 2-wk reduction of ambulatory activity attenuates peripheral insulin sensitivity. J Appl Physiol. (2010)
  13. Fisher G, Hunter GR, Gower BA. Aerobic exercise training conserves insulin sensitivity for 1 yr following weight loss in overweight women. J Appl Physiol. (2012)
  14. Nassis GP, et al. Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, body fat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girls. Metabolism. (2005)
  15. Carr DB, et al. A reduced-fat diet and aerobic exercise in Japanese Americans with impaired glucose tolerance decreases intra-abdominal fat and improves insulin sensitivity but not beta-cell function. Diabetes. (2005)
  16. van der Heijden GJ, et al. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring). (2010)
  17. Van Der Heijden GJ, et al. Strength exercise improves muscle mass and hepatic insulin sensitivity in obese youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2010)
  18. Black LE, Swan PD, Alvar BA. Effects of intensity and volume on insulin sensitivity during acute bouts of resistance training. J Strength Cond Res. (2010)
  19. Thomas DR. Sarcopenia. Clin Geriatr Med. (2010)
  20. Sundell J. Resistance Training Is an Effective Tool against Metabolic and Frailty Syndromes. Adv Prev Med. (2011)
  21. Johnston AP, De Lisio M, Parise G. Resistance training, sarcopenia, and the mitochondrial theory of aging. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2008)
  22. Pillard F, et al. Physical activity and sarcopenia. Clin Geriatr Med. (2011)
  23. Bautmans I, Van Puyvelde K, Mets T. Sarcopenia and functional decline: pathophysiology, prevention and therapy. Acta Clin Belg. (2009)
  24. Kemmler W, et al. Exercise effects on bone mineral density, falls, coronary risk factors, and health care costs in older women: the randomized controlled senior fitness and prevention (SEFIP) study. Arch Intern Med. (2010)
  25. Taaffe DR, et al. High-impact exercise promotes bone gain in well-trained female athletes. J Bone Miner Res. (1997)
  26. Martyn-St James M, Carroll S. Effects of different impact exercise modalities on bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a meta-analysis. J Bone Miner Metab. (2010)
  27. Hourigan SR, et al. Positive effects of exercise on falls and fracture risk in osteopenic women. Osteoporos Int. (2008)
  28. Kronhed AC, Möller M. Effects of physical exercise on bone mass, balance skill and aerobic capacity in women and men with low bone mineral density, after one year of training--a prospective study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. (1998)
  29. Asikainen TM, Kukkonen-Harjula K, Miilunpalo S. Exercise for health for early postmenopausal women: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Sports Med. (2004)
  30. de Matos O, et al. Effect of specific exercise training on bone mineral density in women with postmenopausal osteopenia or osteoporosis. Gynecol Endocrinol. (2009)
  31. Yamazaki S, et al. Effect of walking exercise on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with osteopenia/osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Metab. (2004)
  32. Wilks DC, et al. Bone mass and geometry of the tibia and the radius of master sprinters, middle and long distance runners, race-walkers and sedentary control participants: a pQCT study. Bone. (2009)
  33. Kontulainen S, et al. Effect of long-term impact-loading on mass, size, and estimated strength of humerus and radius of female racquet-sports players: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography study between young and old starters and controls. J Bone Miner Res. (2003)
  34. Derman O, et al. Effect of swimming on bone metabolism in adolescents. Turk J Pediatr. (2008)
  35. Taaffe DR, et al. Differential effects of swimming versus weight-bearing activity on bone mineral status of eumenorrheic athletes. J Bone Miner Res. (1995)
  36. A Prospective Study of Weight Training and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Men.
  37. Yisahak SF, et al. Diabetes in North America and the Caribbean: an update. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. (2014)
  38. Baker I, Chohan M, Opara EI. Impact of cooking and digestion, in vitro, on the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon, clove and nutmeg. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. (2013)
  39. Nabavi SF, et al. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries. Nutrients. (2015)
  40. Crawford P. Effectiveness of cinnamon for lowering hemoglobin A1C in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Board Fam Med. (2009)
  41. Blevins SM, et al. Effect of cinnamon on glucose and lipid levels in non insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. (2007)
  42. Esterbauer H, Schaur RJ, Zollner H. Chemistry and biochemistry of 4-hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydes. Free Radic Biol Med. (1991)
  43. McGowan MP, Proulx S. Nutritional supplements and serum lipids: does anything work?. Curr Atheroscler Rep. (2009)
  44. Magistrelli A, Chezem JC. Effect of ground cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose concentration in normal-weight and obese adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. (2012)
  45. Frijhoff J, et al. Clinical Relevance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress. Antioxid Redox Signal. (2015)
  46. Luft VC, et al. Carboxymethyl lysine, an advanced glycation end product, and incident diabetes: a case-cohort analysis of the ARIC Study. Diabet Med. (2016)
  47. Sargeant LA, et al. Vitamin C and hyperglycemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer--Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) study: a population-based study. Diabetes Care. (2000)
  48. Kositsawat J, Freeman VL. Vitamin C and A1c relationship in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006. J Am Coll Nutr. (2011)
  49. Will JC, Byers T. Does diabetes mellitus increase the requirement for vitamin C?. Nutr Rev. (1996)
  50. Wilson R, et al. Inadequate Vitamin C Status in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Associations with Glycaemic Control, Obesity, and Smoking. Nutrients. (2017)
  51. Rehman K, Akash MSH. Mechanism of Generation of Oxidative Stress and Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: How Are They Interlinked?. J Cell Biochem. (2017)
  52. Ashor AW, et al. Effects of vitamin C supplementation on glycaemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2017)
  53. Mason SA, et al. Ascorbic acid supplementation improves postprandial glycaemic control and blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes: Findings of a randomized cross-over trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. (2019)
  54. Jenkins DJA, et al. Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals for CVD Prevention and Treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol. (2018)