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Diabetes

Our evidence-based analysis on diabetes features 37 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by Kamal Patel .
Reviewed by
Examine.com Team
Last Updated:

Frequently Asked Questions about Diabetes

Are eggs healthy?
Eggs can be considered healthy. They can have downsides depending how many you consume and your state of health, but in general they are safe to consume.
The effects of cinnamon on blood sugar levels

References

  1. Ohman M, et al. Biochemical effects of consumption of eggs containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Ups J Med Sci. (2008)
  2. Bovet P, et al. Decrease in blood triglycerides associated with the consumption of eggs of hens fed with food supplemented with fish oil. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2007)
  3. Goodrow EF, et al. Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. J Nutr. (2006)
  4. Vishwanathan R, et al. Consumption of 2 and 4 egg yolks/d for 5 wk increases macular pigment concentrations in older adults with low macular pigment taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  5. Zeisel SH, da Costa KA. Choline: an essential nutrient for public health. Nutr Rev. (2009)
  6. Small DM. George Lyman Duff memorial lecture. Progression and regression of atherosclerotic lesions. Insights from lipid physical biochemistry. Arteriosclerosis. (1988)
  7. Rajamäki K, et al. Cholesterol crystals activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages: a novel link between cholesterol metabolism and inflammation. PLoS One. (2010)
  8. Hornung V, et al. Silica crystals and aluminum salts have been shown to activate the inflammasome through phagosomal destabilization. Nat Immunol. (2008)
  9. Martinon F, et al. Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasome. Nature. (2006)
  10. Duewell P, et al. NLRP3 inflammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystals. Nature. (2010)
  11. Nakamura Y, et al. Egg consumption, serum total cholesterol concentrations and coronary heart disease incidence: Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. Br J Nutr. (2006)
  12. Zazpe I, et al. Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in the SUN Project. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  13. Qureshi AI, et al. Regular egg consumption does not increase the risk of stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Med Sci Monit. (2007)
  14. Scrafford CG, et al. Egg consumption and CHD and stroke mortality: a prospective study of US adults. Public Health Nutr. (2011)
  15. Hu FB, et al. A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. JAMA. (1999)
  16. Djoussé L, Gaziano JM. Egg consumption in relation to cardiovascular disease and mortality: the Physicians’ Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. (2008)
  17. Fuller NR, et al. The effect of a high-egg diet on cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Egg (DIABEGG) study-a 3-mo randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2015)
  18. Ballesteros MN, et al. One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients. Nutrients. (2015)
  19. Blesso CN, et al. Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. (2013)
  20. Blesso CN, et al. Effects of carbohydrate restriction and dietary cholesterol provided by eggs on clinical risk factors in metabolic syndrome. J Clin Lipidol. (2013)
  21. Njike V, et al. Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults--effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk. Nutr J. (2010)
  22. Rueda JM, Khosla P. Impact of breakfasts (with or without eggs) on body weight regulation and blood lipids in university students over a 14-week semester. Nutrients. (2013)
  23. Djoussé L, et al. Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  24. Ra.dzevičienė L, Ostrauskas R. Egg consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study. Public Health Nutr. (2012)
  25. Djoussé L, et al. Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Diabetes Care. (2009)
  26. Shi Z, et al. Egg consumption and the risk of diabetes in adults, Jiangsu, China. Nutrition. (2011)
  27. Pearce KL, Clifton PM, Noakes M. Egg consumption as part of an energy-restricted high-protein diet improves blood lipid and blood glucose profiles in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Br J Nutr. (2011)
  28. Yisahak SF, et al. Diabetes in North America and the Caribbean: an update. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. (2014)
  29. Baker I, Chohan M, Opara EI. Impact of cooking and digestion, in vitro, on the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon, clove and nutmeg. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. (2013)
  30. Nabavi SF, et al. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries. Nutrients. (2015)
  31. Crawford P. Effectiveness of cinnamon for lowering hemoglobin A1C in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Board Fam Med. (2009)
  32. Blevins SM, et al. Effect of cinnamon on glucose and lipid levels in non insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. (2007)
  33. Esterbauer H, Schaur RJ, Zollner H. Chemistry and biochemistry of 4-hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydes. Free Radic Biol Med. (1991)
  34. McGowan MP, Proulx S. Nutritional supplements and serum lipids: does anything work?. Curr Atheroscler Rep. (2009)
  35. Magistrelli A, Chezem JC. Effect of ground cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose concentration in normal-weight and obese adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. (2012)
  36. Frijhoff J, et al. Clinical Relevance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress. Antioxid Redox Signal. (2015)
  37. Luft VC, et al. Carboxymethyl lysine, an advanced glycation end product, and incident diabetes: a case-cohort analysis of the ARIC Study. Diabet Med. (2016)