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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Since the virus was identified in 2019, it has spread and created a global pandemic. Vaccines are effective at reducing both the chance of contracting COVID-19 and its severity.

Our evidence-based analysis on coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) features 47 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by Rob Stenstrom, MD, PhD and the Examine team.
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  1. ^ CDC. SARS: Basic Factsheet.
  2. ^ Corman VM, et al. Hosts and Sources of Endemic Human Coronaviruses. Adv Virus Res. (2018)
  3. ^ Paules CI, Marston HD, Fauci AS. Coronavirus Infections-More Than Just the Common Cold. JAMA. (2020)
  4. ^ “Incubation Period”.
  5. ^ Bai Y, et al. Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA. (2020)
  6. ^ Ki M, -nCoV TFF. Epidemiologic characteristics of early cases with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease in Republic of Korea. Epidemiol Health. (2020)
  7. ^ Pan Y, et al. Viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples. Lancet Infect Dis. (2020)
  8. ^ Liu Y, et al. Viral dynamics in mild and severe cases of COVID-19. The Lancet. (2020-03-19)
  9. ^ Ben Hu, et al. Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Nat Rev Microbiol. (2021)
  10. ^ Eric A Meyerowitz, et al. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: A Review of Viral, Host, and Environmental Factors. Ann Intern Med. (2021)
  11. ^ Michael Klompas, Meghan A Baker, Chanu Rhee. Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Theoretical Considerations and Available Evidence. JAMA. (2020)
  12. ^ Ong SWX, et al. Air, Surface Environmental, and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) From a Symptomatic Patient. JAMA. (2020)
  13. ^ van Doremalen N, et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med. (2020)
  14. ^ Wang W, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Different Types of Clinical Specimens. JAMA. (2020)
  15. ^ CDC. Delta Variant.
  16. ^ Zachary J Madewell, et al. Household Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. (2020)
  17. ^ Travis P Baggett, et al. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Residents of a Large Homeless Shelter in Boston. JAMA. (2020)
  18. ^ Emily Mosites, et al. Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Prevalence in Homeless Shelters - Four U.S. Cities, March 27-April 15, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. (2020)
  19. ^ Megan Wallace, et al. COVID-19 in Correctional and Detention Facilities - United States, February-April 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. (2020)
  20. ^ WHO. COVID-19 vaccine tracker and landscape.
  21. ^ CDC. COVID-19 Vaccines Work.
  22. ^ Catherine M Brown, et al. Outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 Infections, Including COVID-19 Vaccine Breakthrough Infections, Associated with Large Public Gatherings - Barnstable County, Massachusetts, July 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. (2021)
  23. ^ a b CDC. Your Guide to Masks.
  24. ^ WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Masks.
  25. ^ Yanni Li, et al. Face masks to prevent transmission of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Infect Control. (2021)
  26. ^ Jeremy Howard, et al. An evidence review of face masks against COVID-19. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2021)
  27. ^ Arjuna P De Silva, Madunil A Niriella, H Janaka de Silva. Masks in COVID-19: let's unmask the evidence. Expert Rev Respir Med. (2021)
  28. ^ CDC=date=9-23-2021. Types of Masks and Respirators.
  29. ^ Michel Bielecki, et al. Social Distancing Alters the Clinical Course of COVID-19 in Young Adults: A Comparative Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis. (2021)
  30. ^ Ignacio A Perez, et al. Disease spreading with social distancing: A prevention strategy in disordered multiplex networks. Phys Rev E. (2020)
  31. ^ Borchgrevink CP, Cha J, Kim S. Hand washing practices in a college town environment. J Environ Health. (2013)
  32. ^ Kampf G, Kramer A. Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs. Clin Microbiol Rev. (2004)
  33. ^ Arbogast JW, et al. Impact of a Comprehensive Workplace Hand Hygiene Program on Employer Health Care Insurance Claims and Costs, Absenteeism, and Employee Perceptions and Practices. J Occup Environ Med. (2016)
  34. ^ Del Rio C, Malani PN. 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Important Information for Clinicians. JAMA. (2020)
  35. ^ Wong VW, Cowling BJ, Aiello AE. Hand hygiene and risk of influenza virus infections in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiol Infect. (2014)
  36. ^ Teslya A, et al. Impact of self-imposed prevention measures and short-term government intervention on mitigating and delaying a COVID-19 epidemic. medRxiv (PREPRINT). (2020-03-16)
  37. ^ Merry AF, et al. Touch contamination levels during anaesthetic procedures and their relationship to hand hygiene procedures: a clinical audit. Br J Anaesth. (2001)
  38. ^ Grayson ML, et al. Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1 influenza virus on the hands of human volunteers. Clin Infect Dis. (2009)
  39. ^ Liu P, et al. Effectiveness of liquid soap and hand sanitizer against Norwalk virus on contaminated hands. Appl Environ Microbiol. (2010)
  40. ^ David M Weinreich, et al. REGN-COV2, a Neutralizing Antibody Cocktail, in Outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. (2021)
  41. ^ Peter Chen, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody LY-CoV555 in Outpatients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. (2021)
  42. ^ CDC. Symptoms of Coronavirus.
  43. ^ CDC. Post-COVID Conditions.
  44. ^ Oscar Moreno-Pérez, et al. Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Incidence and risk factors: A Mediterranean cohort study. J Infect. (2021)
  45. ^ Petter Brodin. Immune determinants of COVID-19 disease presentation and severity. Nat Med. (2021)
  46. ^ Carole H Sudre, et al. Attributes and predictors of long COVID. Nat Med. (2021)
  47. ^ Ya-Dong Gao, et al. Risk factors for severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients: A review. Allergy. (2021)