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Coronavirus masks: What’s the latest evidence?

We analyzed over 80 studies to help answer your mask questions: efficacy of different types, storage, and more.

Our evidence-based analysis on coronavirus masks: what’s the latest evidence? features 89 unique references to scientific papers.

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  1. ^ Mitze et al. Face masks considerably reduce COVID-19 cases in Germany: A synthetic control method approach. IZA Discussion Paper Series (ISSN: 2365-9793). (2020-06)
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  4. ^ Feng S, et al. Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Respir Med. (2020)
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  24. ^ Stockwell RE, et al. Face Masks Reduce the Release of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cough Aerosols When Worn for Clinically Relevant Periods. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. (2018)
  25. ^ Dharmadhikari AS, et al. Surgical face masks worn by patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: impact on infectivity of air on a hospital ward. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. (2012)
  26. ^ Sung AD, et al. Universal Mask Usage for Reduction of Respiratory Viral Infections After Stem Cell Transplant: A Prospective Trial. Clin Infect Dis. (2016)
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  28. ^ Johnson DF, et al. A quantitative assessment of the efficacy of surgical and N95 masks to filter influenza virus in patients with acute influenza infection. Clin Infect Dis. (2009)
  29. ^ Hui DS, et al. Exhaled air dispersion during coughing with and without wearing a surgical or N95 mask. PLoS One. (2012)
  30. ^ MacIntyre CR, Chughtai AA. Facemasks for the prevention of infection in healthcare and community settings. BMJ. (2015)
  31. ^ Gralton J, McLaws ML. Protecting healthcare workers from pandemic influenza: N95 or surgical masks?. Crit Care Med. (2010)
  32. ^ Long Y, et al. Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks against influenza: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Evid Based Med. (2020)
  33. ^ Radonovich LJ Jr, et al. N95 Respirators vs Medical Masks for Preventing Influenza Among Health Care Personnel: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. (2019)
  34. ^ Loeb M, et al. Surgical mask vs N95 respirator for preventing influenza among health care workers: a randomized trial. JAMA. (2009)
  35. ^ MacIntyre CR, et al. A randomized clinical trial of three options for N95 respirators and medical masks in health workers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. (2013)
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  38. ^ Howard et al. Face masks against COVID-19: An evidence review. Preprints. (2020-07-12)
  39. ^ Christian J. Kähler and Rainer Hain. Fundamental protective mechanisms of face masks against droplet infections. Journal of Aerosol Science. (2020-10)
  40. ^ Liu X, Zhang S. COVID-19: Face masks and human-to-human transmission. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. (2020)
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  43. ^ Davies A, et al. Testing the efficacy of homemade masks: would they protect in an influenza pandemic?. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. (2013)
  44. ^ Myers WR, et al. Workplace protection factor measurements on powered air-purifying respirators at a secondary lead smelter: results and discussion. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. (1984)
  45. ^ Yan J, et al. Modeling the Effectiveness of Respiratory Protective Devices in Reducing Influenza Outbreak. Risk Anal. (2019)
  46. ^ Milton DK, et al. Influenza virus aerosols in human exhaled breath: particle size, culturability, and effect of surgical masks. PLoS Pathog. (2013)
  47. ^ Aiello AE, et al. Mask use, hand hygiene, and seasonal influenza-like illness among young adults: a randomized intervention trial. J Infect Dis. (2010)
  48. ^ Cowling BJ, et al. Preliminary findings of a randomized trial of non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent influenza transmission in households. PLoS One. (2008)
  49. ^ Suess T, et al. The role of facemasks and hand hygiene in the prevention of influenza transmission in households: results from a cluster randomised trial; Berlin, Germany, 2009-2011. BMC Infect Dis. (2012)
  50. ^ Aiello AE, et al. Facemasks, hand hygiene, and influenza among young adults: a randomized intervention trial. PLoS One. (2012)
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  56. ^ Barasheed O, et al. Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial to Test Effectiveness of Facemasks in Preventing Influenza-like Illness Transmission among Australian Hajj Pilgrims in 2011. Infect Disord Drug Targets. (2014)
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  61. ^ Neupane BB, et al. Optical microscopic study of surface morphology and filtering efficiency of face masks. PeerJ. (2019)
  62. ^ a b Viscusi DJ, et al. Evaluation of five decontamination methods for filtering facepiece respirators. Ann Occup Hyg. (2009)
  63. ^ Tseng CC, Li CS. Inactivation of viruses on surfaces by ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. J Occup Environ Hyg. (2007)
  64. ^ Mills D, et al. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation of influenza-contaminated N95 filtering facepiece respirators. Am J Infect Control. (2018)
  65. ^ Lindsley WG, et al. Effects of Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) on N95 Respirator Filtration Performance and Structural Integrity. J Occup Environ Hyg. (2015)
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  67. ^ Eickmann M, et al. Inactivation of three emerging viruses - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and Nipah virus - in platelet concentrates by ultraviolet C light and in plasma by methylene blue plus visible light. Vox Sang. (2020)
  68. ^ Trevisan A, et al. Unusual high exposure to ultraviolet-C radiation. Photochem Photobiol. (2006)
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  71. ^ Nathan N. Waste Not, Want Not: The Re-Usability of N95 Masks. Anesth Analg. (2020)
  72. ^ Elhafi G, et al. Microwave or autoclave treatments destroy the infectivity of infectious bronchitis virus and avian pneumovirus but allow detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Avian Pathol. (2004)
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  83. ^ Sandaradura I, et al. A close shave? Performance of P2/N95 respirators in healthcare workers with facial hair: results of the BEARDS (BEnchmarking Adequate Respiratory DefenceS) study. J Hosp Infect. (2020)
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  88. ^ Kenyon C. Widespread use of face masks in public may slow the spread of SARS CoV-2: an ecological study. medRxiv. (2020-04-06)
  89. ^ a b Bai Y, et al. Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA. (2020)