Quick Navigation

CHO

Our evidence-based analysis on cho features 107 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
Last Updated:

References

  1. Poudyal H, Brown L. Should the pharmacological actions of dietary fatty acids in cardiometabolic disorders be classified based on biological or chemical function?. Prog Lipid Res. (2015)
  2. Grundy SM. Influence of stearic acid on cholesterol metabolism relative to other long-chain fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr. (1994)
  3. Vandenberghe C, et al. Tricaprylin alone increases plasma ketone response more than coconut oil or other medium chain triglycerides: an acute crossover study in healthy adults. Curr Dev Nutr. (2017)
  4. Neal EG, et al. A randomized trial of classical and medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diets in the treatment of childhood epilepsy. Epilepsia. (2009)
  5. Orsavova J, et al. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids. Int J Mol Sci. (2015)
  6. KEYS A, ANDERSON JT, GRANDE F. Prediction of serum-cholesterol responses of man to changes in fats in the diet. Lancet. (1957)
  7. KEYS A, GRANDE F. Role of dietary fat in human nutrition. III. Diet and the epidemiology of coronary heart disease. Am J Public Health Nations Health. (1957)
  8. Keys A, et al. The seven countries study: 2,289 deaths in 15 years. Prev Med. (1984)
  9. Keys A, et al. The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study. Am J Epidemiol. (1986)
  10. Reiser R. Saturated fat in the diet and serum cholesterol concentration: a critical examination of the literature. Am J Clin Nutr. (1973)
  11. Tabas I, Williams KJ, Borén J. Subendothelial lipoprotein retention as the initiating process in atherosclerosis: update and therapeutic implications. Circulation. (2007)
  12. Lusis AJ. Atherosclerosis. Nature. (2000)
  13. World Health Organization. Effects of saturated fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a systematic review and regression analysis.
  14. Allaire J, et al. LDL particle number and size and cardiovascular risk: anything new under the sun?. Curr Opin Lipidol. (2017)
  15. Otvos JD, et al. Clinical implications of discordance between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and particle number. J Clin Lipidol. (2011)
  16. Contois JH, et al. Apolipoprotein B and cardiovascular disease risk: position statement from the AACC Lipoproteins and Vascular Diseases Division Working Group on Best Practices. Clin Chem. (2009)
  17. Sniderman AD, et al. A meta-analysis of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B as markers of cardiovascular risk. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. (2011)
  18. Feig JE, Feig JL, Dangas GD. The role of HDL in plaque stabilization and regression: basic mechanisms and clinical implications. Coron Artery Dis. (2016)
  19. Millán J, et al. Lipoprotein ratios: Physiological significance and clinical usefulness in cardiovascular prevention. Vasc Health Risk Manag. (2009)
  20. McQueen MJ, et al. Lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins as risk markers of myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): a case-control study. Lancet. (2008)
  21. Walldius G, et al. The apoB/apoA-I ratio is better than the cholesterol ratios to estimate the balance between plasma proatherogenic and antiatherogenic lipoproteins and to predict coronary risk. Clin Chem Lab Med. (2004)
  22. da Luz PL, et al. Comparison of serum lipid values in patients with coronary artery disease at <50, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and >70 years of age. Am J Cardiol. (2005)
  23. da Luz PL, et al. High ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol predicts extensive coronary disease. Clinics (Sao Paulo). (2008)
  24. Hanak V, et al. Accuracy of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio for prediction of the low-density lipoprotein phenotype B. Am J Cardiol. (2004)
  25. Golia E, et al. Inflammation and cardiovascular disease: from pathogenesis to therapeutic target. Curr Atheroscler Rep. (2014)
  26. Bertrand MJ, Tardif JC. Inflammation and beyond: new directions and emerging drugs for treating atherosclerosis. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. (2017)
  27. Fritsche KL. The science of fatty acids and inflammation. Adv Nutr. (2015)
  28. Rietschel ET, et al. Bacterial endotoxin: molecular relationships of structure to activity and function. FASEB J. (1994)
  29. Miller SI, Ernst RK, Bader MW. LPS, TLR4 and infectious disease diversity. Nat Rev Microbiol. (2005)
  30. Copeland S, et al. Acute inflammatory response to endotoxin in mice and humans. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. (2005)
  31. Santos S, Oliveira A, Lopes C. Systematic review of saturated fatty acids on inflammation and circulating levels of adipokines. Nutr Res. (2013)
  32. Kratz M, et al. Effects of dietary fatty acids on the composition and oxidizability of low-density lipoprotein. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2002)
  33. Chowdhury R, et al. Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. (2014)
  34. Siri-Tarino PW, et al. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  35. Mozaffarian D, Micha R, Wallace S. Effects on coronary heart disease of increasing polyunsaturated fat in place of saturated fat: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS Med. (2010)
  36. Ramsden CE, et al. n-6 fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. (2010)
  37. Hamley S. The effect of replacing saturated fat with mostly n-6 polyunsaturated fat on coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Nutr J. (2017)
  38. Månsson HL. Fatty acids in bovine milk fat. Food Nutr Res. (2008)
  39. Huth PJ, Park KM. Influence of dairy product and milk fat consumption on cardiovascular disease risk: a review of the evidence. Adv Nutr. (2012)
  40. Lovegrove JA, Hobbs DA. New perspectives on dairy and cardiovascular health. Proc Nutr Soc. (2016)
  41. Rosqvist F, et al. Potential role of milk fat globule membrane in modulating plasma lipoproteins, gene expression, and cholesterol metabolism in humans: a randomized study. Am J Clin Nutr. (2015)
  42. O'Sullivan TA, et al. Food sources of saturated fat and the association with mortality: a meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. (2013)
  43. Vlassara H, et al. Oral AGE restriction ameliorates insulin resistance in obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. (2016)
  44. Briggs MA, Petersen KS, Kris-Etherton PM. Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Replacements for Saturated Fat to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk. Healthcare (Basel). (2017)
  45. Zong G, et al. Monounsaturated fats from plant and animal sources in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among US men and women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (2018)
  46. Hussain G, et al. Fatting the brain: a brief of recent research. Front Cell Neurosci. (2013)
  47. Fernandes MF, Mutch DM, Leri F. The Relationship between Fatty Acids and Different Depression-Related Brain Regions, and Their Potential Role as Biomarkers of Response to Antidepressants. Nutrients. (2017)
  48. Kien CL, et al. Substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat is associated with increased daily physical activity and resting energy expenditure and with changes in mood. Am J Clin Nutr. (2013)
  49. Dumas JA, et al. Dietary saturated fat and monounsaturated fat have reversible effects on brain function and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in young women. Metabolism. (2016)
  50. Sartorius T, et al. Monounsaturated fatty acids prevent the aversive effects of obesity on locomotion, brain activity, and sleep behavior. Diabetes. (2012)
  51. Kaviani S, Cooper JA. Appetite responses to high-fat meals or diets of varying fatty acid composition: a comprehensive review. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2017)
  52. Krishnan S, Cooper JA. Effect of dietary fatty acid composition on substrate utilization and body weight maintenance in humans. Eur J Nutr. (2014)
  53. Jones PJ, Pencharz PB, Clandinin MT. Whole body oxidation of dietary fatty acids: implications for energy utilization. Am J Clin Nutr. (1985)
  54. Schmidt DE, Allred JB, Kien CL. Fractional oxidation of chylomicron-derived oleate is greater than that of palmitate in healthy adults fed frequent small meals. J Lipid Res. (1999)
  55. Dorgan JF, et al. Effects of dietary fat and fiber on plasma and urine androgens and estrogens in men: a controlled feeding study. Am J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  56. Wang C, et al. Low-fat high-fiber diet decreased serum and urine androgens in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2005)
  57. Hämäläinen E, et al. Diet and serum sex hormones in healthy men. J Steroid Biochem. (1984)
  58. Raben A, et al. Serum sex hormones and endurance performance after a lacto-ovo vegetarian and a mixed diet. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (1992)
  59. Gutierrez-Salmean G, et al. Effects of (-)-epicatechin on molecular modulators of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. J Nutr Biochem. (2014)
  60. Gottumukkala RV, et al. Determination of Catechin and Epicatechin Content in Chocolates by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Int Sch Res Notices. (2014)
  61. Natsume M, et al. Analyses of polyphenols in cacao liquor, cocoa, and chocolate by normal-phase and reversed-phase HPLC. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. (2000)
  62. Miller KB, et al. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents of selected commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products in the United States. J Agric Food Chem. (2006)
  63. Arts IC, van de Putte B, Hollman PC. Catechin contents of foods commonly consumed in The Netherlands. 1. Fruits, vegetables, staple foods, and processed foods. J Agric Food Chem. (2000)
  64. Hooper L, et al. Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  65. Field DT, Williams CM, Butler LT. Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in an acute improvement in visual and cognitive functions. Physiol Behav. (2011)
  66. Patel S, et al. The effect of flavonoids on visual function in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. (2015)
  67. Miller KB, et al. Impact of alkalization on the antioxidant and flavanol content of commercial cocoa powders. J Agric Food Chem. (2008)
  68. Albertini B, et al. Effect of fermentation and drying on cocoa polyphenols. J Agric Food Chem. (2015)
  69. Todorovic V, et al. Correlation between Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activity, and Polyphenols of Alkalized/Nonalkalized Cocoa Powders. J Food Sci. (2017)
  70. Andres-Lacueva C, et al. Flavanol and flavonol contents of cocoa powder products: influence of the manufacturing process. J Agric Food Chem. (2008)
  71. Hollenberg NK, Fisher ND. Is it the dark in dark chocolate?. Circulation. (2007)
  72. Harris RC, Söderlund K, Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci (Lond). (1992)
  73. Diet and Refsum's disease. The determination of phytanic acid and phytol in certain foods and the application of this knowledge to the choice of suitable convenience foods for patients with Refsum's disease.
  74. Rawson ES, et al. Creatine supplementation does not improve cognitive function in young adults. Physiol Behav. (2008)
  75. Benton D, Donohoe R. The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores. Br J Nutr. (2011)
  76. Phytanic acid: measurement of plasma concentrations by gas–liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis and associations with diet and other plasma fatty acids.
  77. Egg intake does not change plasma lipoprotein and coagulation profiles.
  78. Bowman MP, et al. Effect of dietary fat and cholesterol on plasma lipids and lipoprotein fractions in normolipidemic men. J Nutr. (1988)
  79. Chenoweth W, et al. Influence of dietary cholesterol and fat on serum lipids in men. J Nutr. (1981)
  80. Effect of dietary eggs and ascorbic acid on plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy young men.
  81. Down-regulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor by dietary cholesterol.
  82. Johnson C, Greenland P. Effects of exercise, dietary cholesterol, and dietary fat on blood lipids. Arch Intern Med. (1990)
  83. Sacks FM, et al. Ingestion of egg raises plasma low density lipoproteins in free-living subjects. Lancet. (1984)
  84. Flynn MA, et al. Serum lipids and eggs. J Am Diet Assoc. (1986)
  85. Fernandez ML. Dietary cholesterol provided by eggs and plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2006)
  86. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of the effects of two eggs per day in moderately hypercholesterolemic and combined hyperlipidemic subjects taught the NCEP step I diet.
  87. Romano G, et al. Effects of dietary cholesterol on plasma lipoproteins and their subclasses in IDDM patients. Diabetologia. (1998)
  88. Mayurasakorn K, et al. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol changes after continuous egg consumption in healthy adults. J Med Assoc Thai. (2008)
  89. Vishwanathan R, et al. Consumption of 2 and 4 egg yolks/d for 5 wk increases macular pigment concentrations in older adults with low macular pigment taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  90. Katz DL, et al. Egg consumption and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Int J Cardiol. (2005)
  91. Njike V, et al. Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults--effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk. Nutr J. (2010)
  92. Jones PJ. Dietary cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients: a review of the Harvard Egg Study and other data. Int J Clin Pract Suppl. (2009)
  93. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans: a meta-analysis.
  94. Fernandez ML. Effects of eggs on plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations. Food Funct. (2010)
  95. McNamara DJ. The impact of egg limitations on coronary heart disease risk: do the numbers add up. J Am Coll Nutr. (2000)
  96. Fernandez ML, Calle M. Revisiting dietary cholesterol recommendations: does the evidence support a limit of 300 mg/d. Curr Atheroscler Rep. (2010)
  97. Eggs, serum cholesterol, and coronary heart disease.
  98. Djoussé L, et al. Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  99. Hu FB, et al. A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. JAMA. (1999)
  100. Herron KL, et al. High intake of cholesterol results in less atherogenic low-density lipoprotein particles in men and women independent of response classification. Metabolism. (2004)
  101. Spence JD, Jenkins DJ, Davignon J. Dietary cholesterol and egg yolks: not for patients at risk of vascular disease. Can J Cardiol. (2010)
  102. Pearce KL, Clifton PM, Noakes M. Egg consumption as part of an energy-restricted high-protein diet improves blood lipid and blood glucose profiles in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Br J Nutr. (2011)
  103. Goodrow EF, et al. Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. J Nutr. (2006)
  104. Hays JH, et al. Effect of a high saturated fat and no-starch diet on serum lipid subfractions in patients with documented atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Mayo Clin Proc. (2003)
  105. Mutungi G, et al. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases plasma HDL cholesterol in overweight men consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet. J Nutr. (2008)
  106. Mutungi G, et al. Eggs distinctly modulate plasma carotenoid and lipoprotein subclasses in adult men following a carbohydrate-restricted diet. J Nutr Biochem. (2010)
  107. Fernández-Robredo P, et al. Egg yolk improves lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and retinal abnormalities in a murine model of genetic hypercholesterolemia. J Nutr Biochem. (2008)