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Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) affect the blood vessels and heart, and they are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Modifying lifestyle factors such as tobacco and alcohol use, diet, and exercise can greatly decrease the risk of developing heart disease.

Our evidence-based analysis on cardiovascular disease (cvd) features 9 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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  1. ^ The content of this page was partially adapted from MedlinePlus of the National Library of Medicine.
  2. ^ Tabas I, Williams KJ, Borén J. Subendothelial lipoprotein retention as the initiating process in atherosclerosis: update and therapeutic implications. Circulation. (2007)
  3. ^ Piepoli MF, et al. 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts)Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Eur Heart J. (2016)
  4. ^ Sacks FM, et al. Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association. Circulation. (2017)
  5. ^ Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, et al. Major lipids, apolipoproteins, and risk of vascular disease. JAMA. (2009)
  6. ^ a b David J A Jenkins, et al. Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment: JACC Focus Seminar. J Am Coll Cardiol. (2021)
  7. ^ a b Darel Wee Kiat Toh, Evangelyn Sihui Koh, Jung Eun Kim. Incorporating healthy dietary changes in addition to an increase in fruit and vegetable intake further improves the status of cardiovascular disease risk factors: A systematic review, meta-regression, and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Rev. (2020)
  8. ^ Appel LJ, et al. Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension. (2006)
  9. ^ a b Lukas Schwingshackl, et al. Effects of oils and solid fats on blood lipids: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. J Lipid Res. (2018)