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Bone Mineral Density

Bone mineral density (BMD) is the density of mineral in bone tissue (more mass in the same area causing an increase in density), and is thought to reflect structural integrity of bones. Improving BMD reduces the risk of osteoporosis and falls in the elderly.

Kamal
Research analysis lead by Kamal Patel
All content reviewed by Examine.com Team. Published:
Last Updated:

Things To Know & Note

Also Known As

BMD

Human Effect Matrix

The Human Effect Matrix looks at human studies (it excludes animal and in vitro studies) to tell you what supplements affect bone mineral density
Grade Level of Evidence
Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials
Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled
Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies
Uncontrolled or observational studies only
Level of Evidence
? The amount of high quality evidence. The mo re evidence, the more we can trust the results.
Outcome Magnitude of effect
? The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome. Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect.
Consistency of research results
? Scientific research does not always agree. HIGH or VERY HIGH means that most of the scientific research agrees.
Notes
grade-a Vitamin K Notable Moderate See all 15 studies
There appears to be a relative increase in bone mineral density associated with vitamin K supplementation, due to attenuating the rate of bone loss in older individuals. Although it is significant overall in meta-analyses, it is quite unreliable and similar in potency to vitamin D when it occurs (less than estrogen replacement therapy)
grade-b Creatine Minor Low See all 3 studies
There is limited evidence in favor of improvements in bone mineral density.
grade-b Dehydroepiandrosterone - High See all 7 studies
Most evidence suggests no increase in bone mineral density, but this may be due to short trials (6 months). Longer trials note a small but unreliable increase in bone mineral density, so there may be a role of DHEA in bone health
grade-b Red Clover Extract - High See all 4 studies
Beyond a small (less than 5%) attenuation in the rate of lumbar bone mineral density losses, standard supplementation does not appear to significantly influence bone mass or the rate of bone loss.
grade-c Coleus forskohlii  
grade-c Horny Goat Weed  
grade-c Magnesium  
grade-c Vitamin C  
grade-c Conjugated Linoleic Acid  
grade-c HMB  
grade-c Leucic Acid  
grade-c Vitamin D  
grade-c Whey Protein  
grade-d Yerba mate  
grade-d Black Cohosh  
grade-d Calcium  
grade-d Fish Oil  

All comparative evidence is now gathered in our ​A-to-Z Supplement Reference.

The evidence for each separate supplement is still freely available ​here.