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Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts on blood vessels as it circulates. High blood pressure (hypertension) and low blood pressure (hypotension) can each lead to a variety of health issues.

Our evidence-based analysis on blood pressure features 18 unique references to scientific papers.

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References

  1. ^ The content of this page was partially adapted from MedlinePlus of the National Library of Medicine.
  2. ^ Pei D, et al. Relationship of blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk factors in normotensive middle-aged men. Medicine (Baltimore). (2011)
  3. ^ Whelton PK, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension. (2018)
  4. ^ Peti-Peterdi J, Harris RC. Macula densa sensing and signaling mechanisms of renin release. J Am Soc Nephrol. (2010)
  5. ^ Appel LJ, et al. Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension. (2006)
  6. ^ National High Blood Pressure Education Program. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure.
  7. ^ Tielemans SM, et al. Intake of total protein, plant protein and animal protein in relation to blood pressure: a meta-analysis of observational and intervention studies. J Hum Hypertens. (2013)
  8. ^ Rebholz CM, et al. Dietary protein intake and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Epidemiol. (2012)
  9. ^ Fekete ÁA, et al. Whey protein lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function and lipid biomarkers in adults with prehypertension and mild hypertension: results from the chronic Whey2Go randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2016)
  10. ^ Whelton PK, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension. (2018)
  11. Verster JC, Koenig J. Caffeine intake and its sources: A review of national representative studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2018)
  12. Guessous I, Eap CB, Bochud M. Blood pressure in relation to coffee and caffeine consumption. Curr Hypertens Rep. (2014)
  13. Nurminen ML, et al. Coffee, caffeine and blood pressure: a critical review. Eur J Clin Nutr. (1999)
  14. Noordzij M, et al. Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens. (2005)
  15. Greenberg JA, Chow G, Ziegelstein RC. Caffeinated coffee consumption, cardiovascular disease, and heart valve disease in the elderly (from the Framingham Study). Am J Cardiol. (2008)
  16. Li M, et al. The effect of caffeine on intraocular pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. (2011)
  17. Chandrasekaran S, Rochtchina E, Mitchell P. Effects of caffeine on intraocular pressure: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. J Glaucoma. (2005)
  18. Lohsiriwat S, Puengna N, Leelakusolvong S. Effect of caffeine on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in Thai healthy volunteers. Dis Esophagus. (2006)