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Blood glucose

How much glucose, or blood sugar, is floating around in your blood. Fasting blood glucose is measured when your stomach is empty (usually before breakfast), whereas postprandial blood glucose is checked after a meal. Both are used as indicators of diabetes risk.

Our evidence-based analysis on blood glucose features 19 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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References

  1. ^ The content of this page was partially adapted from MedlinePlus of the National Library of Medicine.
  2. ^ Wasserman DH. Four grams of glucose. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2009)
  3. ^ De Meyts P. The Insulin Receptor and Its Signal Transduction Network.
  4. ^ Mouri MI, Badireddy M. Hyperglycemia.
  5. ^ Einarson TR, et al. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: a systematic literature review of scientific evidence from across the world in 2007-2017. Cardiovasc Diabetol. (2018)
  6. ^ Zhang J, et al. An updated meta-analysis of cohort studies: Diabetes and risk of Alzheimer's disease. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. (2017)
  7. ^ Yue X, et al. Risk of Parkinson Disease in Diabetes Mellitus: An Updated Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Cohort Studies. Medicine (Baltimore). (2016)
  8. ^ Tsilidis KK, et al. Type 2 diabetes and cancer: umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies. BMJ. (2015)
  9. ^ American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care.
  10. ^ Monnier L, et al. Activation of oxidative stress by acute glucose fluctuations compared with sustained chronic hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. JAMA. (2006)
  11. ^ Ceriello A, Ihnat MA. 'Glycaemic variability': a new therapeutic challenge in diabetes and the critical care setting. Diabet Med. (2010)
  12. ^ Brownlee M. The pathobiology of diabetic complications: a unifying mechanism. Diabetes. (2005)
  13. ^ Schwingshackl L, et al. Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Epidemiol. (2017)
  14. ^ Schwingshackl L, et al. Food groups and intermediate disease markers: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Clin Nutr. (2018)
  15. ^ Gummesson A, et al. Effect of weight reduction on glycated haemoglobin in weight loss trials in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. (2017)
  16. ^ Franz MJ, et al. Lifestyle weight-loss intervention outcomes in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Acad Nutr Diet. (2015)
  17. ^ Aune D, et al. Physical activity and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Eur J Epidemiol. (2015)
  18. ^ Liubaoerjijin Y, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise intensity on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of head-to-head randomized trials. Acta Diabetol. (2016)
  19. ^ Pan B, et al. Exercise training modalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. (2018)