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Appetite

The desire to eat food, independent of whether food is actually eaten or not. This pools together both physical hunger and subjective appetite, since studies measure this by self-report survey.

Our evidence-based analysis on appetite features 38 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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References

  1. Sullivan AC, et al. Effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat. II. Appetite. Lipids. (1974)
  2. Heymsfield SB, et al. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (1998)
  3. Kim JE, et al. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial. Nutr J. (2011)
  4. Mattes RD, Bormann L. Effects of (-)-hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables. Physiol Behav. (2000)
  5. Leonhardt M, Hrupka B, Langhans W. Effect of hydroxycitrate on food intake and body weight regain after a period of restrictive feeding in male rats. Physiol Behav. (2001)
  6. Leonhardt M, Balkan B, Langhans W. Effect of hydroxycitrate on respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, and glucose tolerance in male rats after a period of restrictive feeding. Nutrition. (2004)
  7. National Academies of Sciences, et al. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research.
  8. Cota D, et al. Endogenous cannabinoid system as a modulator of food intake. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (2003)
  9. Riggs PK, et al. A pilot study of the effects of cannabis on appetite hormones in HIV-infected adult men. Brain Res. (2012)
  10. Bermudez-Silva FJ, et al. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor and mTORC1 signalling pathways interact to modulate glucose homeostasis in mice. Dis Model Mech. (2016)
  11. Puighermanal E, et al. Dissociation of the pharmacological effects of THC by mTOR blockade. Neuropsychopharmacology. (2013)
  12. Patel S, Cone RD. Neuroscience: a cellular basis for the munchies. Nature. (2015)
  13. Mattes RD, et al. Cannabinoids and appetite stimulation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. (1994)
  14. Muniyappa R, et al. Metabolic effects of chronic cannabis smoking. Diabetes Care. (2013)
  15. Penner EA, Buettner H, Mittleman MA. The impact of marijuana use on glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance among US adults. Am J Med. (2013)
  16. Rajavashisth TB, et al. Decreased prevalence of diabetes in marijuana users: cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III. BMJ Open. (2012)
  17. Smit E, Crespo CJ. Dietary intake and nutritional status of US adult marijuana users: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Public Health Nutr. (2001)
  18. Le Strat Y, Le Foll B. Obesity and cannabis use: results from 2 representative national surveys. Am J Epidemiol. (2011)
  19. Rodondi N, et al. Marijuana use, diet, body mass index, and cardiovascular risk factors (from the CARDIA study). Am J Cardiol. (2006)
  20. Foltin RW, Fischman MW, Byrne MF. Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight of humans living in a residential laboratory. Appetite. (1988)
  21. Jones RT, Benowitz NL, Herning RI. Clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence. J Clin Pharmacol. (1981)
  22. N L Benowitz, R T Jones. Cardiovascular effects of prolonged delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ingestion. Clin Pharmacol Ther. (1975)
  23. Whiting PF, et al. Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. (2015)
  24. Lutge EE, Gray A, Siegfried N. The medical use of cannabis for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV/AIDS. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2013)
  25. Haney M, et al. Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers. Caloric intake, mood, and sleep. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. (2007)
  26. Fearon K, et al. Definition and classification of cancer cachexia: an international consensus. Lancet Oncol. (2011)
  27. Cannabis-In-Cachexia-Study-Group, et al. Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-In-Cachexia-Study-Group. J Clin Oncol. (2006)
  28. Jatoi A, et al. Dronabinol versus megestrol acetate versus combination therapy for cancer-associated anorexia: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group study. J Clin Oncol. (2002)
  29. Andries A, Gram B, Støving RK. Effect of dronabinol therapy on physical activity in anorexia nervosa: a randomised, controlled trial. Eat Weight Disord. (2015)
  30. Andries A, et al. Dronabinol in severe, enduring anorexia nervosa: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Eat Disord. (2014)
  31. Bensaid M, et al. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 increases Acrp30 mRNA expression in adipose tissue of obese fa/fa rats and in cultured adipocyte cells. Mol Pharmacol. (2003)
  32. Arita Y, et al. Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in obesity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (1999)
  33. Goldstein BJ, Scalia R. Adiponectin: A novel adipokine linking adipocytes and vascular function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2004)
  34. Christopoulou FD, Kiortsis DN. An overview of the metabolic effects of rimonabant in randomized controlled trials: potential for other cannabinoid 1 receptor blockers in obesity. J Clin Pharm Ther. (2011)
  35. Després JP, et al. Effects of rimonabant on metabolic risk factors in overweight patients with dyslipidemia. N Engl J Med. (2005)
  36. Sam AH, Salem V, Ghatei MA. Rimonabant: From RIO to Ban. J Obes. (2011)
  37. Chavez-Tapia NC, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the adverse events of rimonabant treatment: considerations for its potential use in hepatology. BMC Gastroenterol. (2009)
  38. Moreira FA, Crippa JA. The psychiatric side-effects of rimonabant. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. (2009)