Quick Navigation

Anxiety

Anxiety is characterized by excessive tension and worry. Unlike fear, it is persistent and future oriented. There are many types of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety, social anxiety, phobias, and panic disorder.

Our evidence-based analysis on anxiety features 61 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
Last Updated:

References

  1. ^ The content of this page was partially adapted from MedlinePlus of the National Library of Medicine.
  2. ^ APA. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. APA. (2013-05)
  3. ^ Chand SP, Kuckel DP, Huecker MR. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT).
  4. ^ Carpenter JK, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and related disorders: A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Depress Anxiety. (2018)
  5. ^ a b c Bandelow B, et al. Efficacy of treatments for anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. (2015)
  6. ^ Montero-Marin J, et al. Is cognitive-behavioural therapy more effective than relaxation therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders? A meta-analysis. Psychol Med. (2018)
  7. ^ Van Dam NT, et al. Mind the Hype: A Critical Evaluation and Prescriptive Agenda for Research on Mindfulness and Meditation. Perspect Psychol Sci. (2018)
  8. ^ Farias M, Wikholm C. Has the science of mindfulness lost its mind?. BJPsych Bull. (2016)
  9. ^ Davidson RJ, Kaszniak AW. Conceptual and methodological issues in research on mindfulness and meditation. Am Psychol. (2015)
  10. ^ Blanck P, et al. Effects of mindfulness exercises as stand-alone intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Behav Res Ther. (2018)
  11. ^ Chen KW, et al. Meditative therapies for reducing anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Depress Anxiety. (2012)
  12. ^ Pascoe MC, et al. Mindfulness mediates the physiological markers of stress: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychiatr Res. (2017)
  13. ^ Khoury B, et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for healthy individuals: A meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res. (2015)
  14. ^ Aylett E, Small N, Bower P. Exercise in the treatment of clinical anxiety in general practice - a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Health Serv Res. (2018)
  15. ^ LeBouthillier DM, Asmundson GJG. The efficacy of aerobic exercise and resistance training as transdiagnostic interventions for anxiety-related disorders and constructs: A randomized controlled trial. J Anxiety Disord. (2017)
  16. ^ Parletta N, et al. A Mediterranean-style dietary intervention supplemented with fish oil improves diet quality and mental health in people with depression: A randomized controlled trial (HELFIMED). Nutr Neurosci. (2019)
  17. ^ Jaime Lee, et al. Switching to a 10-day Mediterranean-style diet improves mood and cardiovascular function in a controlled crossover study. Nutrition. (2015)
  18. ^ Slee A, et al. Pharmacological treatments for generalised anxiety disorder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet. (2019)
  19. ^ Bighelli I, et al. Antidepressants versus placebo for panic disorder in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2018)
  20. Simons D, et al. The effect of medicated chewing gums on oral health in frail older people: a 1-year clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. (2002)
  21. Fu Y, et al. Assessment of chewing sugar-free gums for oral debris reduction: a randomized controlled crossover clinical trial. Am J Dent. (2012)
  22. Itthagarun A, Wei SH. Chewing gum and saliva in oral health. J Clin Dent. (1997)
  23. Wessel SW, et al. Quantification and qualification of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. PLoS One. (2015)
  24. Nayak PA, Nayak UA, Khandelwal V. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent. (2014)
  25. Smith A. Effects of chewing gum on mood, learning, memory and performance of an intelligence test. Nutr Neurosci. (2009)
  26. Tänzer U, von Fintel A, Eikermann T. Chewing gum and concentration performance. Psychol Rep. (2009)
  27. Tucha L, Simpson W. The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention. Appetite. (2011)
  28. Johnson AJ, et al. Chewing gum moderates multi-task induced shifts in stress, mood, and alertness. A re-examination. Appetite. (2011)
  29. Johnson AJ, et al. The effect of chewing gum on physiological and self-rated measures of alertness and daytime sleepiness. Physiol Behav. (2012)
  30. Allen AP, Smith AP. Effects of chewing gum and time-on-task on alertness and attention. Nutr Neurosci. (2012)
  31. Allen AP, Smith AP. Demand characteristics, pre-test attitudes and time-on-task trends in the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported mood in healthy volunteers. Appetite. (2012)
  32. Johnson AJ, Muneem M, Miles C. Chewing gum benefits sustained attention in the absence of task degradation. Nutr Neurosci. (2013)
  33. Hirano Y, et al. Effects of chewing on cognitive processing speed. Brain Cogn. (2013)
  34. Allen AP, Jacob TJ, Smith AP. Effects and after-effects of chewing gum on vigilance, heart rate, EEG and mood. Physiol Behav. (2014)
  35. Allen AP, Smith AP. Chewing gum: cognitive performance, mood, well-being, and associated physiology. Biomed Res Int. (2015)
  36. Tucha O, et al. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects. Appetite. (2004)
  37. Hirano Y, Onozuka M. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention. Biomed Res Int. (2015)
  38. Tucha L, et al. Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Appetite. (2010)
  39. Scholey A, et al. Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress. Physiol Behav. (2009)
  40. Zibell S, Madansky E. Impact of gum chewing on stress levels: online self-perception research study. Curr Med Res Opin. (2009)
  41. Sasaki-Otomaru A, et al. Effect of regular gum chewing on levels of anxiety, mood, and fatigue in healthy young adults. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. (2011)
  42. Sketchley-Kaye K, et al. Chewing gum modifies state anxiety and alertness under conditions of social stress. Nutr Neurosci. (2011)
  43. Gray G, et al. The contrasting physiological and subjective effects of chewing gum on social stress. Appetite. (2012)
  44. Smith AP, Chaplin K, Wadsworth E. Chewing gum, occupational stress, work performance and wellbeing. An intervention study. Appetite. (2012)
  45. Smith AP, Woods M. Effects of chewing gum on the stress and work of university students. Appetite. (2012)
  46. Smith A. Effects of chewing gum on stress and health: a replication and investigation of dose-response. Stress Health. (2013)
  47. Konno M, et al. Relationships Between Gum-Chewing and Stress. Adv Exp Med Biol. (2016)
  48. Torney LK, Johnson AJ, Miles C. Chewing gum and impasse-induced self-reported stress. Appetite. (2009)
  49. Ekuni D, et al. Gum chewing modulates heart rate variability under noise stress. Acta Odontol Scand. (2012)
  50. Walker J, et al. Chewing unflavored gum does not reduce cortisol levels during a cognitive task but increases the response of the sympathetic nervous system. Physiol Behav. (2016)
  51. Hasegawa Y, et al. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing. PLoS One. (2013)
  52. Morinushi T, et al. Effect on electroencephalogram of chewing flavored gum. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. (2000)
  53. Hetherington MM, Boyland E. Short-term effects of chewing gum on snack intake and appetite. Appetite. (2007)
  54. Hetherington MM, Regan MF. Effects of chewing gum on short-term appetite regulation in moderately restrained eaters. Appetite. (2011)
  55. Melanson KJ, Kresge DL. Chewing gum decreases energy intake at lunch following a controlled breakfast. Appetite. (2017)
  56. Park E, et al. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women. Physiol Behav. (2016)
  57. Xu J, et al. The effect of gum chewing on blood GLP-1 concentration in fasted, healthy, non-obese men. Endocrine. (2015)
  58. Lippi G, Cervellin G, Mattiuzzi C. Gum-Chewing and Headache: An Underestimated Trigger of Headache Pain in Migraineurs?. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. (2015)
  59. Watemberg N, et al. The influence of excessive chewing gum use on headache frequency and severity among adolescents. Pediatr Neurol. (2014)
  60. Tabrizi R, et al. Does gum chewing increase the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in individuals with gum chewing habits?. J Craniofac Surg. (2014)
  61. Graff-Radford SB. Temporomandibular disorders and headache. Dent Clin North Am. (2007)