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Our evidence-based analysis on alc features 43 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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  1. Obad A, et al. Alcohol-Mediated Organ Damages: Heart and Brain. Front Pharmacol. (2018)
  2. Maxwell CR, et al. Acetate causes alcohol hangover headache in rats. PLoS One. (2010)
  3. Tsukamoto S, et al. Determinations of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate in blood and urine during alcohol oxidation in man. Alcohol Alcohol. (1989)
  4. Ylikahri RH, et al. Metabolic studies on the pathogenesis of hangover. Eur J Clin Invest. (1974)
  5. Carmichael FJ, et al. Central nervous system effects of acetate: contribution to the central effects of ethanol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. (1991)
  6. Tipple CT, Benson S, Scholey A. A Review of the Physiological Factors Associated with Alcohol Hangover. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. (2017)
  7. Mackus M, et al. Proceeding of the 8th Alcohol Hangover Research Group Meeting. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. (2017)
  8. Penning R, et al. The pathology of alcohol hangover. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. (2010)
  9. Palmer E, et al. Alcohol Hangover: Underlying Biochemical, Inflammatory and Neurochemical Mechanisms. Alcohol Alcohol. (2019)
  10. Bustamante J, et al. Alterations of motor performance and brain cortex mitochondrial function during ethanol hangover. Alcohol. (2012)
  12. Rohsenow DJ, Howland J. The role of beverage congeners in hangover and other residual effects of alcohol intoxication: a review. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. (2010)
  13. Rohsenow DJ, et al. Intoxication with bourbon versus vodka: effects on hangover, sleep, and next-day neurocognitive performance in young adults. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. (2010)
  14. Schroeder DJ, Collins WE. Effects of congener and noncongener alcoholic beverages on a clinical ataxia test battery. Aviat Space Environ Med. (1979)
  15. Thompson T, et al. Analgesic Effects of Alcohol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Experimental Studies in Healthy Participants. J Pain. (2017)
  16. Armstrong LE, et al. Mild dehydration affects mood in healthy young women. J Nutr. (2012)
  17. Ganio MS, et al. Mild dehydration impairs cognitive performance and mood of men. Br J Nutr. (2011)
  18. van Schrojenstein Lantman M, et al. Total sleep time, alcohol consumption, and the duration and severity of alcohol hangover. Nat Sci Sleep. (2017)
  19. Ebrahim IO, et al. Alcohol and sleep I: effects on normal sleep. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. (2013)
  20. Jayawardena R, et al. Interventions for treatment and/or prevention of alcohol hangover: Systematic review. Hum Psychopharmacol. (2017)
  21. Wang F, et al. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder. Molecules. (2016)
  22. Verster JC, Penning R. Treatment and prevention of alcohol hangover. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. (2010)
  23. Pittler MH, Verster JC, Ernst E. Interventions for preventing or treating alcohol hangover: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. (2005)
  24. Howland J, et al. The incidence and severity of hangover the morning after moderate alcohol intoxication. Addiction. (2008)
  25. Cederbaum AI. Alcohol metabolism. Clin Liver Dis. (2012)
  26. Mitchell MC Jr, Teigen EL, Ramchandani VA. Absorption and peak blood alcohol concentration after drinking beer, wine, or spirits. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. (2014)
  27. Jones AW, Jönsson KA, Kechagias S. Effect of high-fat, high-protein, and high-carbohydrate meals on the pharmacokinetics of a small dose of ethanol. Br J Clin Pharmacol. (1997)
  28. Lee HS, et al. Effect of Korean pear (Pyruspyrifolia cv. Shingo) juice on hangover severity following alcohol consumption. Food Chem Toxicol. (2013)
  29. Kim MJ, et al. Effect of Mixed Fruit and Vegetable Juice on Alcohol Hangovers in Healthy Adults. Prev Nutr Food Sci. (2018)
  30. Wiese J, et al. Effect of Opuntia ficus indica on symptoms of the alcohol hangover. Arch Intern Med. (2004)
  31. Kim H, et al. A standardized extract of the fruit of Hovenia dulcis alleviated alcohol-induced hangover in healthy subjects with heterozygous ALDH2: A randomized, controlled, crossover trial. J Ethnopharmacol. (2017)
  32. Lee MH, et al. Red ginseng relieves the effects of alcohol consumption and hangover symptoms in healthy men: a randomized crossover study. Food Funct. (2014)
  33. Baek KS, et al. In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of Korean Red Ginseng-derived components. J Ginseng Res. (2016)
  34. Hong M, et al. Anti-inflammatory and antifatigue effect of Korean Red Ginseng in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Ginseng Res. (2016)
  35. Bang JS, et al. Clinical effect of a polysaccharide-rich extract of Acanthopanax senticosus on alcohol hangover. Pharmazie. (2015)
  36. Takahashi M, et al. Clinical effectiveness of KSS formula, a traditional folk remedy for alcohol hangover symptoms. J Nat Med. (2010)
  37. Tiwari V, Chopra K. Protective effect of curcumin against chronic alcohol-induced cognitive deficits and neuroinflammation in the adult rat brain. Neuroscience. (2013)
  38. Kasperczyk S, et al. The administration of N-acetylcysteine reduces oxidative stress and regulates glutathione metabolism in the blood cells of workers exposed to lead. Clin Toxicol (Phila). (2013)
  39. Alidoost F, et al. Effects of silymarin on the proliferation and glutathione levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from beta-thalassemia major patients. Int Immunopharmacol. (2006)
  40. Ozaras R, et al. N-acetylcysteine attenuates alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the rat. World J Gastroenterol. (2003)
  41. Verster J and Berthélemy O. Consumer Satisfaction and Efficacy of the Hangover Cure After-Effect©. Adv Prev Med. (2012)
  42. Kaivola S, et al. Hangover headache and prostaglandins: prophylactic treatment with tolfenamic acid. Cephalalgia. (1983)
  43. Verster JC. The "hair of the dog": a useful hangover remedy or a predictor of future problem drinking?. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. (2009)