Summary of Wine
TL;DR - contains multiple supplements
Wine is a fermented and usually alcoholic beverage made from grapes. It tends to come in two forms, red or white, in which the different processing can yield different levels of colors found in the grape skin (which include resveratrol, anthocyanins, and other bioactives). Red wine tends to be seen as more beneficial due to higher levels of micronutrients.
Most benefit with red wine, epidemiologically, is seen with 300mL of red wine daily, plotted on a J-curve. This is due to a combination of all factors in red wine.
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Scientific Research on Wine
Wine tends to contain the following, in varying dosages according to growing conditions and type of wine:
Resveratrol, a stilbene compound
Resveratrol oligomers (ε-viniferin, α-viniferin, sophostilbene A, rhaponticin, piceatannol).
Cinnamic acids such as Fertaric acid, Ferulic acid and Chlorogenic acid
Benzoic acids such as vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid (anthocyanin metabolite)
- Dolinsky VW, et al. Improvements in Skeletal Muscle Strength and Cardiac Function Induced by Resveratrol Contribute to Enhanced Exercise Performance in Rats. J Physiol. (2012)
- Bobrowska-Hägerstrand M, et al. Resveratrol oligomers are potent MRP1 transport inhibitors. Anticancer Res. (2006)
- Long D, et al. A rapid method for proline determination in grape juice and wine. J Agric Food Chem. (2012)
- Astringency and bitterness of selected phenolics in wine.
- Zhu L, Zhang Y, Lu J. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations. Int J Mol Sci. (2012)
- Furusho N, et al. Analytical method for natamycin in wine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Kokuritsu Iyakuhin Shokuhin Eisei Kenkyusho Hokoku. (2011)
- Medina A, et al. Efficacy of natamycin for control of growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus carbonarius strains under different environmental conditions. J Appl Microbiol. (2007)
- Mercolini L, Mandrioli R, Raggi MA. Content of melatonin and other antioxidants in grape-related foodstuffs: measurement using a MEPS-HPLC-F method. J Pineal Res. (2011)
- Huang X, Mazza G. Simultaneous analysis of serotonin, melatonin, piceid and resveratrol in fruits using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. (2011)