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Our evidence-based analysis on wheat features 16 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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  1. Mellen PB, Walsh TF, Herrington DM. Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2008)
  2. Anderson JW. Whole grains protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Proc Nutr Soc. (2003)
  3. Anderson JW, et al. Whole grain foods and heart disease risk. J Am Coll Nutr. (2000)
  4. Whole Grains and Health, Evidence from Observational and Intervention Studies.
  5. Whole Grain Intake and Cardiovascular Disease and Whole Grain Intake and Diabetes: A review.
  6. Brownlee IA, et al. Markers of cardiovascular risk are not changed by increased whole-grain intake: the WHOLEheart study, a randomised, controlled dietary intervention. Br J Nutr. (2010)
  7. Isaksson H, et al. Whole grain rye breakfast - sustained satiety during three weeks of regular consumption. Physiol Behav. (2012)
  8. Isaksson H, et al. Effect of rye bread breakfasts on subjective hunger and satiety: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. (2009)
  9. Isaksson H, et al. Rye kernel breakfast increases satiety in the afternoon - an effect of food structure. Nutr J. (2011)
  10. Schroeder N, et al. Influence of whole grain barley, whole grain wheat, and refined rice-based foods on short-term satiety and energy intake. Appetite. (2009)
  11. Bodinham CL, et al. Short-term effects of whole-grain wheat on appetite and food intake in healthy adults: a pilot study. Br J Nutr. (2011)
  12. Kristensen M, et al. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults. Appetite. (2010)
  13. Aston LM, Stokes CS, Jebb SA. No effect of a diet with a reduced glycaemic index on satiety, energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women. Int J Obes (Lond). (2008)
  14. Koh-Banerjee P, Rimm EB. Whole grain consumption and weight gain: a review of the epidemiological evidence, potential mechanisms and opportunities for future research. Proc Nutr Soc. (2003)
  15. Giacco R, et al. Whole grain intake in relation to body weight: From epidemiological evidence to clinical trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2011)
  16. Atkinson FS, Foster-Powell K, Brand-Miller JC. International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008. Diabetes Care. (2008)