Research Breakdown on Salvia sclarea
Salvia sclarea (of the family Lamiaceae; the Mint family), more commonly referred to as Clary Sage, is an aromatic herb. It is used highly in the perfume industry as the main bioactive, (-)-Sclareol, can be synthesized into Ambrox (an aromatic found from naturally in Ambergris, but is rare from its natural source).
It is sometimes drunk as a tea in Turkey, where it is known as misk sage tea.
Clary sage also has usage as an insect repellant.
The labdane type diterpene (-)-Sclareol, at 0.002-0.026% essential oil but can be up to 1.5% with solid/liquid extraction. The isomer 13-episclareol also exists, with both being biosynthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Sclareol oxide has also been detected
Manool and 13-epimanool (as well as the latter's oxide), structurally similar to Sclareol
Salviatrienes A and B at 4.5% and 1% of the folded essential oil
α-eudesmol, δ-cadinene, and δ-amorphene (aromatics)
The seeds of Clary sage have a 17.66+/-0.11% protein content and 27.24+/-1.32% essential oil content with 5.23+/-0.04% ash content. The fatty acid composition is mostly α-linoleic acid (C18:3 n3) at 52.1+/-0.04% of fatty acids and oleic acid (C18:1 n9) at 22.05+/-0.01%.Lavender) and comparable to the active controls of Imipramine (30mg/kg) and fluoxetine (1.8mg/kg); this anti-depressant effect was blocked with dopamine antagonists and buspirone, a serotonin receptor (5-HT1A) antagonist. When serum corticosteroids were measured (to assess the stress response), there was no significant effect of Clary Sage.
Appears to have anti-depressant effects in rats, and this has been noted with the aroma of Clary SageLavender) to one drop Clary Sage and one drop Rosa centifolia (Rose oil) was compared to placebo aromatherapy (almond oil, same method of appplication and volume of 5cc) and control (no aromatherapy). It was noted that aromatherapy was associated with an average reduction in pain from 7 (0-10 rating scale) down to 5 and then 3 on days 1 and 2, respectively; control failed to reduce pain, and placebo aromatherapy appears to work in some persons to a lesser extent than combination therapy (herb intervention still significantly greater than the placebo group). The authors noted that although heavier flows appears to be correlated with greater pain, that there were no significant difference between groups. A similar application method with a similar aromatherapy (Rose switched for Origanum majorana; Marjoram) noted that in persons with diagnosed primary dysmenorrhea given aromatherapy (placebo given synthestic scents; different molecules) that the herbal aromatherapy group experienced significantly greater pain relief associated with menstrual symptoms. The latter study noted that the majority or aromatics were five molecules; linalyl acetate (36.84%), linalool (22.53%), eucalyptol (17.21%), β-caryophyllene (2.69%), and α‐terpineol (3.29%). It is thought that these aromatics are likely to mediated the anaglesic effects noted.
Combination therapy with at least Clary Sage and Lavender appears to be effective in reducing menstrual pain (no indiciation if this extends to pain in general or just menstrual pain), but currently no studies use Clary Sage in isolation and thus its efficacy in isolation cannot be determinedLavender scent but not placebo, and a decrease in respiratory rate relative to placebo. The drop in diastolic, which was not statistically significant relative to placebo, was because Lavender trended to increase blood pressure slightly.
At least one study to support Clary Sage reducing blood pressure via aromatherapy or in the periphery via conversion from other T-cells and express Foxp3+ to positively influence development and function. CD4+CD25+ may accumulate at the site of tumors where they suppress the activity of cytotoxic T-cells In mice bearing breast tumors who were then given an injection of isolated Sclareol (7.85mcg daily) directly into the tumor noted that the tumor did not grow in volume, while control experienced a standard growth rate; this was associated with an increase in IFN-γ with a concomitant decrease in IL-4 and reduced levels of the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg (T regulatory) immune cell. The suppression of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cell concentration is thought to preserve T-cell mediated cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, and was as effective as the active control of Cyclophosphamide.
May have mechanisms to preserve T-cell cytotoxicity towards tumor cells via reducing the levels of a suppressive T-cell and suppression of HCT116 tumors has been noted elsewhere in immunodeficient mice. This general cytotoxcity appears to extend to most cancer cell lines testes, and one study using CCRF-CEM leukemic cells as well as normal immune cells (resting and PMA activated PMBCs) noted that free sclareol did not show any therapeutic index (GI50 between 33.1-35µM) while liposomal sclaerol had a GI50 of less than 15µM on leukemic cells and over 100µM on normal cells.
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- Ou MC, et al. Pain relief assessment by aromatic essential oil massage on outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. (2012)
- Günnewich N, et al. A diterpene synthase from the clary sage Salvia sclarea catalyzes the cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to (8R)-hydroxy-copalyl diphosphate. Phytochemistry. (2012)
- Yalcin H, et al. Effect of γ-irradiation on bioactivity, fatty acid compositions and volatile compounds of clary sage seed (Salvia sclarea L.). J Food Sci. (2011)
- Conti B, et al. Repellent effect of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) essential oils against the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. (2012)
- Caissard JC, et al. Extracellular localization of the diterpene sclareol in clary sage (Salvia sclarea L., Lamiaceae). PLoS One. (2012)
- Caniard A, et al. Discovery and functional characterization of two diterpene synthases for sclareol biosynthesis in Salvia sclarea (L.) and their relevance for perfume manufacture. BMC Plant Biol. (2012)
- Laville R, et al. Amphilectane diterpenes from Salvia sclarea: biosynthetic considerations. J Nat Prod. (2012)
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- Hatziantoniou S, et al. Cytotoxic and antitumor activity of liposome-incorporated sclareol against cancer cell lines and human colon cancer xenografts. Pharmacol Res. (2006)
- Dimas K, et al. Sclareol induces apoptosis in human HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro and suppression of HCT116 tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Apoptosis. (2007)
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