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Red Meat

Our evidence-based analysis on red meat features 51 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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  1. Lachenmeier DW, Kanteres F, Rehm J. Carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde in alcoholic beverages: risk assessment outside ethanol metabolism. Addiction. (2009)
  2. Pan A, et al. Red Meat Consumption and Mortality: Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies. Arch Intern Med. (2012)
  3. Sinha R, et al. Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Arch Intern Med. (2009)
  4. Higher Red Meat Intake May Be a Marker of Risk, Not a Risk Factor Itself.
  5. Aune D, et al. Meat consumption and cancer risk: a case-control study in Uruguay. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. (2009)
  6. Keszei AP, et al. Red and processed meat consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in The Netherlands Cohort Study. Ann Oncol. (2012)
  7. Arafa MA, et al. Dietary and lifestyle characteristics of colorectal cancer in Jordan: a case-control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. (2011)
  8. Williams CD, et al. Associations of red meat, fat, and protein intake with distal colorectal cancer risk. Nutr Cancer. (2010)
  9. Le Marchand L, et al. A case-control study of diet and colorectal cancer in a multiethnic population in Hawaii (United States): lipids and foods of animal origin. Cancer Causes Control. (1997)
  10. Le Marchand L, et al. Well-done red meat, metabolic phenotypes and colorectal cancer in Hawaii. Mutat Res. (2002)
  11. Roberts-Thomson IC, Butler WJ, Ryan P. Meat, metabolic genotypes and risk for colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. (1999)
  12. Yeh CC, et al. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A2 and N-acetyltransferase genes, meat consumption, and risk of colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. (2009)
  13. Ishibe N, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in heterocyclic amine metabolism and risk of colorectal adenomas. Pharmacogenetics. (2002)
  14. Yoshida K, et al. Association of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, GSTM1 and NAT2 gene polymorphisms with colorectal cancer and smoking. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. (2007)
  15. Lin J, et al. Intake of red meat and heterocyclic amines, metabolic pathway genes and bladder cancer risk. Int J Cancer. (2012)
  16. Lam TK, et al. Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagens increase lung cancer risk. Cancer Res. (2009)
  17. De Stefani E, et al. Meat intake, meat mutagens and risk of lung cancer in Uruguayan men. Cancer Causes Control. (2009)
  18. Lang NP, et al. Rapid metabolic phenotypes for acetyltransferase and cytochrome P4501A2 and putative exposure to food-borne heterocyclic amines increase the risk for colorectal cancer or polyps. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (1994)
  19. Major JM, et al. Socioeconomic deprivation impact on meat intake and mortality: NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Cancer Causes Control. (2011)
  20. Héroux M, et al. Dietary patterns and the risk of mortality: impact of cardiorespiratory fitness. Int J Epidemiol. (2010)
  21. Aune D, et al. Fruits, vegetables and the risk of cancer: a multisite case-control study in Uruguay. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. (2009)
  22. Gibis M, Weiss J. Inhibitory effect of marinades with hibiscus extract on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines and sensory quality of fried beef patties. Meat Sci. (2010)
  23. Smith JS, Ameri F, Gadgil P. Effect of marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in grilled beef steaks. J Food Sci. (2008)
  24. Melo A, et al. Effect of beer/red wine marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in pan-fried beef. J Agric Food Chem. (2008)
  25. Gibis M. Effect of oil marinades with garlic, onion, and lemon juice on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried beef patties. J Agric Food Chem. (2007)
  26. Jägerstad M, Skog K. Genotoxicity of heat-processed foods. Mutat Res. (2005)
  27. Knize MG, et al. Food heating and the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mutagens/carcinogens. Adv Exp Med Biol. (1999)
  28. Phillips DH. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the diet. Mutat Res. (1999)
  29. Lijinsky W. The formation and occurrence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons associated with food. Mutat Res. (1991)
  30. Hord NG, Tang Y, Bryan NS. Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  31. Tannenbaum SR. Preventive action of vitamin C on nitrosamine formation. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl. (1989)
  32. Kessler H, Husemann B, Wagner W. Potential protective effect of vitamin C on carcinogenesis caused by nitrosamine in drinking water: an experimental study on Wistar rats. Eur J Surg Oncol. (1992)
  33. Liu YX, Guttenplan JB. Mutational specificities of N-nitrosamines in a host-mediated assay: comparison with direct-acting N-nitroso compounds in vitro and an approach to deducing the nature of ultimate mutagens in vivo. Mol Carcinog. (1992)
  34. Zeraatkar D, et al. Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Risk for All-Cause Mortality and Cardiometabolic Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies. Ann Intern Med. (2019)
  35. Han MA, et al. Reduction of Red and Processed Meat Intake and Cancer Mortality and Incidence: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies. Ann Intern Med. (2019)
  36. Vernooij RWM, et al. Patterns of Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Risk for Cardiometabolic and Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies. Ann Intern Med. (2019)
  37. Valli C, et al. Health-Related Values and Preferences Regarding Meat Consumption: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review. Ann Intern Med. (2019)
  38. Zeraatkar D, et al. Effect of Lower Versus Higher Red Meat Intake on Cardiometabolic and Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials. Ann Intern Med. (2019)
  39. Johnston BC, et al. Unprocessed Red Meat and Processed Meat Consumption: Dietary Guideline Recommendations From the Nutritional Recommendations (NutriRECS) Consortium. Ann Intern Med. (2019)
  40. Carroll AE, Doherty TS. Meat Consumption and Health: Food for Thought. Ann Intern Med. (2019)
  41. Sackett DL, et al. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. BMJ. (1996)
  42. Katz DL, et al. Hierarchies of evidence applied to lifestyle Medicine (HEALM): introduction of a strength-of-evidence approach based on a methodological systematic review. BMC Med Res Methodol. (2019)
  43. Ebbeling CB, et al. Effects of a low carbohydrate diet on energy expenditure during weight loss maintenance: randomized trial. BMJ. (2018)
  44. Gardner CD, et al. Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. (2018)
  45. Hall KD, et al. Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men. Am J Clin Nutr. (2016)
  46. Hall KD, et al. Ultra-Processed Diets Cause Excess Calorie Intake and Weight Gain: An Inpatient Randomized Controlled Trial of Ad Libitum Food Intake. Cell Metab. (2019)
  47. Patel CJ, Burford B, Ioannidis JP. Assessment of vibration of effects due to model specification can demonstrate the instability of observational associations. J Clin Epidemiol. (2015)
  48. Schoenfeld JD, Ioannidis JP. Is everything we eat associated with cancer? A systematic cookbook review. Am J Clin Nutr. (2013)
  49. Karvetti RL, Knuts LR. Validity of the 24-hour dietary recall. J Am Diet Assoc. (1985)
  50. Keogh RH, White IR. A toolkit for measurement error correction, with a focus on nutritional epidemiology. Stat Med. (2014)
  51. Keogh RH, White IR, Rodwell SA. Using surrogate biomarkers to improve measurement error models in nutritional epidemiology. Stat Med. (2013)