Quick Navigation

Protein or peptide

A powder, usually flavored, that is consumed for the purpose of adding dietary protein to the diet when food is not consumed. Typically seen as a food product or a meal replacement, protein powders come from a variety of sources such as milk, beef, rice, pea, or hemp.

Our evidence-based analysis on protein or peptide features 184 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by .
Reviewed by
Examine.com Team
Last Updated:

Easily stay on top of the latest research

Become an Examine Personalized member to get access to all of the latest nutrition research:

  • Unlock information on 400+ supplements and 600+ health topics.
  • Get a monthly report summarizing studies in the health categories that matter specifically to you.

Try FREE for 7 days

Research Breakdown on Protein or peptide

Popular forms of Protein Supplements:

Examine.com has a list of evidence-based muscle building supplements.


  1. Macfarlane GT, Macfarlane S. Bacteria, colonic fermentation, and gastrointestinal health. J AOAC Int. (2012)
  2. MacLean DA, Graham TE, Saltin B. Branched-chain amino acids augment ammonia metabolism while attenuating protein breakdown during exercise. Am J Physiol. (1994)
  3. Joint WHO/FAO/UNU Expert Consultation. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements in Human Nutrition. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. (2007)
  4. Douglas S Kalman. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates. Foods. (2014)
  5. Stefan H M Gorissen, et al. Protein Content and Amino Acid Composition of Commercially Available Plant-Based Protein Isolates. Amino Acids. (2018)
  6. EASTOE JE. The amino acid composition of mammalian collagen and gelatin. Biochem J. (1955)
  7. Hays NP, et al. Effects of whey and fortified collagen hydrolysate protein supplements on nitrogen balance and body composition in older women. J Am Diet Assoc. (2009)
  8. Zdzieblik D, et al. Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. (2015)
  9. Mathai JK, Liu Y, Stein HH. Values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for some dairy and plant proteins may better describe protein quality than values calculated using the concept for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS). Br J Nutr. (2017)
  10. Jequier E. Thermogenic responses induced by nutrients in man: their importance in energy balance regulation. Experientia Suppl. (1983)
  11. Sehgal SN, et al. Rapamycin (sirolimus, rapamune). Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. (1995)
  12. Tappy L. Thermic effect of food and sympathetic nervous system activity in humans. Reprod Nutr Dev. (1996)
  13. Westerterp KR. Diet induced thermogenesis. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2004)
  14. Veldhorst M, et al. Protein-induced satiety: effects and mechanisms of different proteins. Physiol Behav. (2008)
  15. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, et al. Sex differences in energy homeostatis following a diet relatively high in protein exchanged with carbohydrate, assessed in a respiration chamber in humans. Physiol Behav. (2009)
  16. Soenen S, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Proteins and satiety: implications for weight management. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2008)
  17. Austin J, Marks D. Hormonal regulators of appetite. Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. (2009)
  18. D'Alessio D. Intestinal hormones and regulation of satiety: the case for CCK, GLP-1, PYY, and Apo A-IV. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. (2008)
  19. De Silva A, Bloom SR. Gut Hormones and Appetite Control: A Focus on PYY and GLP-1 as Therapeutic Targets in Obesity. Gut Liver. (2012)
  20. Schober G, et al. Contributions of upper gut hormones and motility to the energy intake-suppressant effects of intraduodenal nutrients in healthy, lean men - a pooled-data analysis. Physiol Rep. (2016)
  21. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, et al. Satiety related to 24 h diet-induced thermogenesis during high protein/carbohydrate vs high fat diets measured in a respiration chamber. Eur J Clin Nutr. (1999)
  22. Ravn AM, et al. Thermic effect of a meal and appetite in adults: an individual participant data meta-analysis of meal-test trials. Food Nutr Res. (2013)
  23. Mithieux G. A novel function of intestinal gluconeogenesis: central signaling in glucose and energy homeostasis. Nutrition. (2009)
  24. Mithieux G, Andreelli F, Magnan C. Intestinal gluconeogenesis: key signal of central control of energy and glucose homeostasis. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2009)
  25. Yánez AJ, et al. Broad expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase provide evidence for gluconeogenesis in human tissues other than liver and kidney. J Cell Physiol. (2003)
  26. Tome D. Protein, amino acids and the control of food intake. Br J Nutr. (2004)
  27. Tomé D, et al. Protein, amino acids, vagus nerve signaling, and the brain. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  28. Journel M, et al. Brain responses to high-protein diets. Adv Nutr. (2012)
  29. Morrison CD, Laeger T. Protein-dependent regulation of feeding and metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab. (2015)
  30. Cota D, et al. Hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Science. (2006)
  31. Lacey JM, Wilmore DW. Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid?. Nutr Rev. (1990)
  32. Al Hafid N, Christodoulou J. Phenylketonuria: a review of current and future treatments. Transl Pediatr. (2015)
  33. van Vliet S, Burd NA, van Loon LJ. The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein Consumption. J Nutr. (2015)
  34. Stuart PS, Bell SJ, Molnar J. Use of tryptophan-fortified hydrolyzed collagen for nutritional support. J Diet Suppl. (2008)
  35. Tekeev AA. The importance of collagen in the biological value of meat. Gig Sanit. (1997)
  36. Gorshkov AI, et al. The relation of the biological value of meat proteins to their content of connective tissue. Vopr Pitan. (1990)
  37. Li P, Wu G. Roles of dietary glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline in collagen synthesis and animal growth. Amino Acids. (2018)
  38. Wu G. Dietary protein intake and human health. Food Funct. (2016)
  39. Biolo G, et al. Protein synthesis and breakdown in skin and muscle: a leg model of amino acid kinetics. Am J Physiol. (1994)
  40. Cahill GF Jr, Aoki TT. Starvation and body nitrogen. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. (1971)
  41. Cahill GF Jr. Fuel metabolism in starvation. Annu Rev Nutr. (2006)
  42. Owen OE, et al. Protein, fat, and carbohydrate requirements during starvation: anaplerosis and cataplerosis. Am J Clin Nutr. (1998)
  43. Dulloo AG, et al. How dieting makes the lean fatter: from a perspective of body composition autoregulation through adipostats and proteinstats awaiting discovery. Obes Rev. (2015)
  44. Dulloo AG, et al. Passive and active roles of fat-free mass in the control of energy intake and body composition regulation. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2017)
  45. Young VR, Marchini JS. Mechanisms and nutritional significance of metabolic responses to altered intakes of protein and amino acids, with reference to nutritional adaptation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. (1990)
  46. Owen OE. Ketone bodies as a fuel for the brain during starvation. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education. (2006)
  47. McLeod M, et al. Live strong and prosper: the importance of skeletal muscle strength for healthy ageing. Biogerontology. (2016)
  48. Wolfe RR. The underappreciated role of muscle in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  49. Cao L, Morley JE. Sarcopenia Is Recognized as an Independent Condition by an International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) Code. J Am Med Dir Assoc. (2016)
  50. Woo T, Yu S, Visvanathan R. Systematic Literature Review on the Relationship Between Biomarkers of Sarcopenia and Quality of Life in Older People. J Frailty Aging. (2016)
  51. Brown JC, Harhay MO, Harhay MN. Sarcopenia and mortality among a population-based sample of community-dwelling older adults. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. (2016)
  52. Volpi E, et al. Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults. Am J Clin Nutr. (2003)
  53. Spector AA, Kim HY. Discovery of essential fatty acids. J Lipid Res. (2015)
  54. Wene JD, Connor WE, DenBesten L. The development of essential fatty acid deficiency in healthy men fed fat-free diets intravenously and orally. J Clin Invest. (1975)
  55. Bistrian DR, et al. Effect of a protein-sparing diet and brief fast on nitrogen metabolism in mildly obese subjects. J Lab Clin Med. (1977)
  56. Bistrian BR. Clinical use of a protein-sparing modified fast. JAMA. (1978)
  57. Wadden TA, et al. A comparison of two very-low-calorie diets: protein-sparing-modified fast versus protein-formula-liquid diet. Am J Clin Nutr. (1985)
  58. Palgi A, et al. Multidisciplinary treatment of obesity with a protein-sparing modified fast: results in 668 outpatients. Am J Public Health. (1985)
  59. Zahouani A, Boulier A, Hespel JP. Short- and long-term evolution of body composition in 1389 obese outpatients following a very low calorie diet (Pro'gram18 VLCD). Acta Diabetol. (2003)
  60. Bakhach M, et al. The Protein-Sparing Modified Fast Diet: An Effective and Safe Approach to Induce Rapid Weight Loss in Severely Obese Adolescents. Glob Pediatr Health. (2016)
  61. Hall KD, et al. Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight. Lancet. (2011)
  62. Institute of Medicine. 10 Protein and Amino Acids. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. (2005)
  63. Elango R, et al. Evidence that protein requirements have been significantly underestimated. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2010)
  64. Elango R, Ball RO, Pencharz PB. Indicator amino acid oxidation: concept and application. J Nutr. (2008)
  65. Humayun MA, et al. Reevaluation of the protein requirement in young men with the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Am J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  66. Rafii M, et al. Dietary Protein Requirement of Men >65 Years Old Determined by the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique Is Higher than the Current Estimated Average Requirement. J Nutr. (2016)
  67. Rafii M, et al. Dietary protein requirement of female adults >65 years determined by the indicator amino acid oxidation technique is higher than current recommendations. J Nutr. (2015)
  68. Tang M, et al. Assessment of protein requirement in octogenarian women with use of the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Am J Clin Nutr. (2014)
  69. Bray GA, et al. Effect of dietary protein content on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition during overeating: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. (2012)
  70. Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2016)
  71. Jäger R, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2017)
  72. Morton RW, et al. A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults. Br J Sports Med. (2018)
  73. Wooding DJ, et al. Increased Protein Requirements in Female Athletes after Variable-Intensity Exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2017)
  74. Malowany JM, et al. Protein to Maximize Whole-Body Anabolism in Resistance-trained Females after Exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2019)
  75. Bandegan A, et al. Indicator amino acid oxidation protein requirement estimate in endurance-trained men 24 h postexercise exceeds both the EAR and current athlete guidelines. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2019)
  76. Bandegan A, et al. Indicator Amino Acid-Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary Allowance. J Nutr. (2017)
  77. Joshua L Hudson, et al. Protein Intake Greater Than the RDA Differentially Influences Whole-Body Lean Mass Responses to Purposeful Catabolic and Anabolic Stressors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Adv Nutr. (2020)
  78. Antonio J, et al. The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2014)
  79. Antonio J, et al. A high protein diet (3.4 g/kg/d) combined with a heavy resistance training program improves body composition in healthy trained men and women--a follow-up investigation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2015)
  80. Antonio J, et al. The effects of a high protein diet on indices of health and body composition--a crossover trial in resistance-trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2016)
  81. Mike Spillane, Darryn S Willoughby. Daily Overfeeding From Protein and/or Carbohydrate Supplementation for Eight Weeks in Conjunction With Resistance Training Does Not Improve Body Composition and Muscle Strength or Increase Markers Indicative of Muscle Protein Synthesis and Myogenesis in Resistance-Trained Males. J Sports Sci Med. (2016)
  82. Campbell et al. Effects of high versus low protein intake on body composition and maximal strength in aspiring female physique athletes engaging in an 8-week resistance-training program. Int J Sport Nutr Exe. (2018)
  83. Leaf A, Antonio J. The Effects of Overfeeding on Body Composition: The Role of Macronutrient Composition - A Narrative Review. Int J Exerc Sci. (2017)
  84. Amy J Hector, Stuart M Phillips. Protein Recommendations for Weight Loss in Elite Athletes: A Focus on Body Composition and Performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2018)
  85. Oliver C Witard, Ina Garthe, Stuart M Phillips. Dietary Protein for Training Adaptation and Body Composition Manipulation in Track and Field Athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2019)
  86. Helms ER, et al. A systematic review of dietary protein during caloric restriction in resistance trained lean athletes: a case for higher intakes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2014)
  87. Aragon AA, et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2017)
  88. Helms ER, Aragon AA, Fitschen PJ. Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2014)
  89. Krieger JW, et al. Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression 1. Am J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  90. Wycherley TP, et al. Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  91. Kim JE, et al. Effects of dietary protein intake on body composition changes after weight loss in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. (2016)
  92. Mathus-Vliegen EM, Obesity Management Task Force of the European Association for the Study of Obesity. Prevalence, pathophysiology, health consequences and treatment options of obesity in the elderly: a guideline. Obes Facts. (2012)
  93. Jensen MD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. (2014)
  94. Blüher M. Adipose tissue inflammation: a cause or consequence of obesity-related insulin resistance?. Clin Sci (Lond). (2016)
  95. Santesso N, et al. Effects of higher- versus lower-protein diets on health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  96. Morley JE, et al. Sarcopenia. J Lab Clin Med. (2001)
  97. Landi F, et al. Sarcopenia as the Biological Substrate of Physical Frailty. Clin Geriatr Med. (2015)
  98. Kojima G. Frailty as a predictor of disabilities among community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Disabil Rehabil. (2017)
  99. Kojima G. Frailty as a Predictor of Nursing Home Placement Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Geriatr Phys Ther. (2018)
  100. Cheng MH, Chang SF. Frailty as a Risk Factor for Falls Among Community Dwelling People: Evidence From a Meta-Analysis. J Nurs Scholarsh. (2017)
  101. Kojima G. Frailty as a predictor of fractures among community-dwelling older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Bone. (2016)
  102. Kojima G. Frailty as a predictor of hospitalisation among community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Epidemiol Community Health. (2016)
  103. Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Ross R. Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. J Am Geriatr Soc. (2002)
  104. Burd NA, Gorissen SH, van Loon LJ. Anabolic resistance of muscle protein synthesis with aging. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. (2013)
  105. James McKendry, et al. Nutritional Supplements to Support Resistance Exercise in Countering the Sarcopenia of Aging. Nutrients. (2020)
  106. Mcleod JC, Stokes T, Phillips SM. Resistance Exercise Training as a Primary Countermeasure to Age-Related Chronic Disease. Front Physiol. (2019)
  107. Moore DR, et al. Protein ingestion to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis requires greater relative protein intakes in healthy older versus younger men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. (2015)
  108. Coelho-Júnior HJ, et al. Low Protein Intake Is Associated with Frailty in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients. (2018)
  109. Coelho-Júnior HJ, et al. Relative Protein Intake and Physical Function in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients. (2018)
  110. Deutz NE, et al. Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group. Clin Nutr. (2014)
  111. Bauer J, et al. Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group. J Am Med Dir Assoc. (2013)
  112. Morley JE, et al. Nutritional recommendations for the management of sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc. (2010)
  113. Traylor DA, Gorissen SHM, Phillips SM. Perspective: Protein Requirements and Optimal Intakes in Aging: Are We Ready to Recommend More Than the Recommended Daily Allowance?. Adv Nutr. (2018)
  114. Mitchell CJ, et al. The effects of dietary protein intake on appendicular lean mass and muscle function in elderly men: a 10-wk randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2017)
  115. Nabuco HCG, et al. Effects of Whey Protein Supplementation Pre- or Post-Resistance Training on Muscle Mass, Muscular Strength, and Functional Capacity in Pre-Conditioned Older Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Nutrients. (2018)
  116. Ten Haaf DSM, et al. Protein supplementation improves lean body mass in physically active older adults: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. (2019)
  117. Stephens TV, et al. Protein requirements of healthy pregnant women during early and late gestation are higher than current recommendations. J Nutr. (2015)
  118. Elango R, Ball RO. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements during Pregnancy. Adv Nutr. (2016)
  119. Imdad A, Bhutta ZA. Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes: effect of balanced protein-energy supplementation. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. (2012)
  120. Dewey KG. Energy and protein requirements during lactation. Annu Rev Nutr. (1997)
  121. Prentice AM, Goldberg GR, Prentice A. Body mass index and lactation performance. Eur J Clin Nutr. (1994)
  122. Daly SE, Hartmann PE. Infant demand and milk supply. Part 1: Infant demand and milk production in lactating women. J Hum Lact. (1995)
  123. Daly SE, Hartmann PE. Infant demand and milk supply. Part 2: The short-term control of milk synthesis in lactating women. J Hum Lact. (1995)
  124. Motil KJ, et al. Dietary protein and nitrogen balance in lactating and nonlactating women. Am J Clin Nutr. (1990)
  125. Motil KJ, et al. Whole-body protein turnover in the fed state is reduced in response to dietary protein restriction in lactating women. Am J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  126. Institute of Medicine. Page 621 in Chapter 10: Protein and Amino Acids. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. (2005)
  127. Institute of Medicine. Page 624 in Chapter 10: Protein and Amino Acids. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. (2005)
  128. Institute of Medicine. Page 630 in Chapter 10: Protein and Amino Acids. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. (2005)
  129. Hay WW, Thureen P. Protein for preterm infants: how much is needed? How much is enough? How much is too much?. Pediatr Neonatol. (2010)
  130. Fenton TR, et al. Higher versus lower protein intake in formula-fed low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (2014)
  131. Tonkin EL, Collins CT, Miller J. Protein Intake and Growth in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review. Glob Pediatr Health. (2014)
  132. Agostoni C, et al. Enteral nutrient supply for preterm infants: commentary from the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. (2010)
  133. Arslanoglu S, et al. Fortification of Human Milk for Preterm Infants: Update and Recommendations of the European Milk Bank Association (EMBA) Working Group on Human Milk Fortification. Front Pediatr. (2019)
  134. Martin CR, Ling PR, Blackburn GL. Review of Infant Feeding: Key Features of Breast Milk and Infant Formula. Nutrients. (2016)
  135. Gale C, et al. Effect of breastfeeding compared with formula feeding on infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  136. Oddy WH, et al. Early infant feeding and adiposity risk: from infancy to adulthood. Ann Nutr Metab. (2014)
  137. Oddy WH. Infant feeding and obesity risk in the child. Breastfeed Rev. (2012)
  138. Bartok CJ, Ventura AK. Mechanisms underlying the association between breastfeeding and obesity. Int J Pediatr Obes. (2009)
  139. Liotto N, et al. Clinical evaluation of two different protein content formulas fed to full-term healthy infants: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Pediatr. (2018)
  140. Oropeza-Ceja LG, et al. Lower Protein Intake Supports Normal Growth of Full-Term Infants Fed Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. (2018)
  141. Tang M. Protein Intake during the First Two Years of Life and Its Association with Growth and Risk of Overweight. Int J Environ Res Public Health. (2018)
  142. Tang M, Krebs NF. High protein intake from meat as complementary food increases growth but not adiposity in breastfed infants: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2014)
  143. Tang M, Hendricks AE, Krebs NF. A meat- or dairy-based complementary diet leads to distinct growth patterns in formula-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2018)
  144. Tang M, et al. Different Growth Patterns Persist at 24 Months of Age in Formula-Fed Infants Randomized to Consume a Meat- or Dairy-Based Complementary Diet from 5 to 12 Months of Age. J Pediatr. (2019)
  145. Ahluwalia N, et al. Usual nutrient intakes of US infants and toddlers generally meet or exceed Dietary Reference Intakes: findings from NHANES 2009-2012. Am J Clin Nutr. (2016)
  146. Elango R, et al. Protein requirement of healthy school-age children determined by the indicator amino acid oxidation method. Am J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  147. Rodriguez NR. Optimal quantity and composition of protein for growing children. J Am Coll Nutr. (2005)
  148. Rogerson D. Vegan diets: practical advice for athletes and exercisers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2017)
  149. Moughan P, et al. The assessment of amino acid digestibility in foods for humans and including a collation of published ileal amino acid digestibility data for human foods. FAO. (2011)
  150. . Dietary Protein Quality Evaluation in Human Nutrition. Report of an FAQ Expert Consultation. FAO Food Nutr Pap. (2013)
  151. Sarwar Gilani G, Wu Xiao C, Cockell KA. Impact of antinutritional factors in food proteins on the digestibility of protein and the bioavailability of amino acids and on protein quality. Br J Nutr. (2012)
  152. Hou Y, Yin Y, Wu G. Dietary essentiality of "nutritionally non-essential amino acids" for animals and humans. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). (2015)
  153. Wilkinson DJ, et al. Effects of leucine and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism. J Physiol. (2013)
  154. Devries MC, et al. Leucine, Not Total Protein, Content of a Supplement Is the Primary Determinant of Muscle Protein Anabolic Responses in Healthy Older Women. J Nutr. (2018)
  155. Wolfe RR. Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality?. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2017)
  156. Yang Y, et al. Myofibrillar protein synthesis following ingestion of soy protein isolate at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012)
  157. Mitchell CJ, et al. Soy protein ingestion results in less prolonged p70S6 kinase phosphorylation compared to whey protein after resistance exercise in older men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2015)
  158. Wilkinson SB, et al. Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion after resistance exercise than does consumption of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy-protein beverage. Am J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  159. Gran P, et al. Muscle p70S6K phosphorylation in response to soy and dairy rich meals in middle aged men with metabolic syndrome: a randomised crossover trial. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2014)
  160. Phillips SM. Nutrient-rich meat proteins in offsetting age-related muscle loss. Meat Sci. (2012)
  161. Volek JS, et al. Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass. J Am Coll Nutr. (2013)
  162. Hartman JW, et al. Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. Am J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  163. Joy JM, et al. The effects of 8 weeks of whey or rice protein supplementation on body composition and exercise performance. Nutr J. (2013)
  164. Kalman D, et al. Effect of protein source and resistance training on body composition and sex hormones. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2007)
  165. Brown EC, et al. Soy versus whey protein bars: effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status. Nutr J. (2004)
  166. Mobley CB, et al. Effects of Whey, Soy or Leucine Supplementation with 12 Weeks of Resistance Training on Strength, Body Composition, and Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue Histological Attributes in College-Aged Males. Nutrients. (2017)
  167. Young VR, Pellett PL. Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. (1994)
  168. Woolf PJ, Fu LL, Basu A. vProtein: identifying optimal amino acid complements from plant-based foods. PLoS One. (2011)
  169. Churchward-Venne TA, et al. Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2014)
  170. Norton LE, et al. Leucine content of dietary proteins is a determinant of postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis in adult rats. Nutr Metab (Lond). (2012)
  171. Brook MS, et al. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy adaptations predominate in the early stages of resistance exercise training, matching deuterium oxide-derived measures of muscle protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling. FASEB J. (2015)
  172. Damas F, et al. Resistance training-induced changes in integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis are related to hypertrophy only after attenuation of muscle damage. J Physiol. (2016)
  173. Morton RW, McGlory C, Phillips SM. Nutritional interventions to augment resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Front Physiol. (2015)
  174. Schoenfeld BJ, Aragon AA. How much protein can the body use in a single meal for muscle-building? Implications for daily protein distribution. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2018)
  175. Deutz NE, Wolfe RR. Is there a maximal anabolic response to protein intake with a meal?. Clin Nutr. (2013)
  176. Kim IY, et al. The anabolic response to a meal containing different amounts of protein is not limited by the maximal stimulation of protein synthesis in healthy young adults. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2016)
  177. Nair KS, Halliday D, Griggs RC. Leucine incorporation into mixed skeletal muscle protein in humans. Am J Physiol. (1988)
  178. Ruth M. Leverton. Proteins (chapter 5 of Food: The Yearbook of Agriculture 1959). The United States Department of Agriculture. (1959)
  179. D L Pannemans, D Halliday, K R Westerterp. Whole-body Protein Turnover in Elderly Men and Women: Responses to Two Protein Intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. (1995)
  180. L. Hambræus. Protein and amino acids in human nutrition. Elsevier Reference Collection in Biomedical Sciences. (2014)
  181. Moore DR, et al. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  182. Symons TB, et al. A moderate serving of high-quality protein maximally stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis in young and elderly subjects. J Am Diet Assoc. (2009)
  183. Aragon AA, Schoenfeld BJ. Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2013)
  184. Wataru Kume, Jun Yasuda, Takeshi Hashimoto. Acute Effect of the Timing of Resistance Exercise and Nutrient Intake on Muscle Protein Breakdown. Nutrients. (2020)