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Potatoes

Potatoes are starchy tubers that contain a modest amount of complete protein and a broad array of vitamins and minerals. When eaten boiled or baked without calorie-dense toppings, they are among the most filling foods per calorie, but when fried they are less filling and are associated with an elevated risk of weight gain, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in observational studies.

Our evidence-based analysis on potatoes features 28 unique references to scientific papers.

Research analysis led by and reviewed by the Examine team.
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References

  1. Michael S Stone, Berdine R Martin, Connie M Weaver. Short-Term RCT of Increased Dietary Potassium from Potato or Potassium Gluconate: Effect on Blood Pressure, Microcirculation, and Potassium and Sodium Retention in Pre-Hypertensive-to-Hypertensive Adults. Nutrients. (2021)
  2. E A Johnston, K S Petersen, P M Kris-Etherton. Daily intake of non-fried potato does not affect markers of glycaemia and is associated with better diet quality compared with refined grains: a randomised, crossover study in healthy adults. Br J Nutr. (2020)
  3. Daniel L Smith, et al. French-fried potatoes consumption and energy balance: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2022)
  4. Siew Ling Tey, et al. Nuts improve diet quality compared to other energy-dense snacks while maintaining body weight. J Nutr Metab. (2011)
  5. Eunice Mah, et al. Cashew consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol: a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial. Am J Clin Nutr. (2017)
  6. Holt SH, et al. A satiety index of common foods. Eur J Clin Nutr. (1995)
  7. Drewnowski A, Rehm CD. Vegetable cost metrics show that potatoes and beans provide most nutrients per penny. PLoS One. (2013)
  8. Nanayakkara WS, et al. Efficacy of the low FODMAP diet for treating irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence to date. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. (2016)
  9. van Jaarsveld PJ, et al. Beta-carotene-rich orange-fleshed sweet potato improves the vitamin A status of primary school children assessed with the modified-relative-dose-response test. Am J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  10. Lobo GP, et al. Genetics and diet regulate vitamin A production via the homeobox transcription factor ISX. J Biol Chem. (2013)
  11. Castenmiller JJ, West CE. Bioavailability and bioconversion of carotenoids. Annu Rev Nutr. (1998)
  12. Novotny JA, et al. Beta-carotene conversion to vitamin A decreases as the dietary dose increases in humans. J Nutr. (2010)
  13. Nosworthy MG, et al. Determination of the protein quality of cooked Canadian pulses. Food Sci Nutr. (2017)
  14. Ganesan K, Xu B. Polyphenol-Rich Lentils and Their Health Promoting Effects. Int J Mol Sci. (2017)
  15. Njoumi S, et al. Soaking and cooking modify the alpha-galacto-oligosaccharide and dietary fibre content in five Mediterranean legumes. Int J Food Sci Nutr. (2019)
  16. Drewnowski A. New metrics of affordable nutrition: which vegetables provide most nutrients for least cost?. J Acad Nutr Diet. (2013)
  17. Kalt W, et al. Recent Research on the Health Benefits of Blueberries and Their Anthocyanins. Adv Nutr. (2020)
  18. Basu A, et al. Strawberries decrease atherosclerotic markers in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res. (2010)
  19. Sissener NH. Are we what we eat? Changes to the feed fatty acid composition of farmed salmon and its effects through the food chain. J Exp Biol. (2018)
  20. Foran JA, et al. Quantitative analysis of the benefits and risks of consuming farmed and wild salmon. J Nutr. (2005)
  21. Hites RA, et al. Global assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in farmed and wild salmon. Environ Sci Technol. (2004)
  22. Foran JA, et al. Risk-based consumption advice for farmed Atlantic and wild Pacific salmon contaminated with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Environ Health Perspect. (2005)
  23. Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. (2002)
  24. Provenza FD, Kronberg SL, Gregorini P. Is Grassfed Meat and Dairy Better for Human and Environmental Health?. Front Nutr. (2019)
  25. Daley CA, et al. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Nutr J. (2010)
  26. Ehr IJ, Persia ME, Bobeck EA. Comparative omega-3 fatty acid enrichment of egg yolks from first-cycle laying hens fed flaxseed oil or ground flaxseed. Poult Sci. (2017)
  27. Anderson KE. Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, and vitamin A and E composition in eggs from hens housed in conventional cage and range production facilities. Poult Sci. (2011)
  28. Zeisel SH, da Costa KA. Choline: an essential nutrient for public health. Nutr Rev. (2009)