The below are the compounds found in Pomegranate fruits. For science on the health benefits of Pomegrantes, refer to the Punicalagins page for the juice (water-soluble components) and the Punicic Acid page for Pomegranate Oil (fat-soluble components). For eating the fruit itself, a combination of the two pages would give a good overall notion, but the Punicalagins page is probably more similar to the fruit itself:
The anti-oxidant Punicalagin molecules, as well as the two molecules that make up Punicalagins (Ellagic acid and Gallic acid). Tannins (catechin chains) are also present and contribute to anti-oxidant purposes
Punicic Acid at around 63.5% of total fatty acids in pomegranate (confirmed) and perhaps an additional 14.2% of Punicic Acid isomers which could be alpha-eleostearic acid as they have been isolated in Pomegranates before
Trace amounts of the fatty acids oleic, stearic, linoleic and palmitic acids.
Small amounts (0.015% of oil extract) of flavonoids that are not Punicalagins or related molecules
Water-soluble proteins found in the seeds (bioactivity unknown)
When using Pomegranate Seed Oil (Shorthanded to PSO), the content of Punicalagins are decreased while the concentration of Punicic Acid and other fatty acids is increased; sometimes up to 72% (some studies on Punicic Acid used PSO at this concentration)